Técnicas de Preservação de Alimentos

Técnicas de Preservação de Alimentos

(Parte 1 de 7)

Food preservation techniques

Edited by Peter Zeuthen and Leif Bøgh-Sørensen

Published by Woodhead Publishing Limited Abington Hall, Abington Cambridge CB1 6AH England w.woodhead-publishing.com

Published in North America by CRC Press LLC 2000 Corporate Blvd, NW Boca Raton FL 33431 USA

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Chapter 2

Professor P.M. Davidson and

Dr S. Zivanovic

Department of Food Science and


University of Tennessee 2509 River Drive Knoxville TN 37996-4539 USA

Tel: 865-974-0098 Fax: 865-974-7332 E-mail: pmdavidson@utk.edu

Chapter 3

Professor J. Pokorny´ Department of Food Chemistry and


Faculty of Food and Biochemical


Institute of Chemical Technology Technicka 5

CZ-166 28 Prague 6 Czech Republic

Chapter 4

Dr A.S. Meyer BioCentrum-DTU Technical University of Denmark DK-2800 Lyngby Denmark

E-mail: am@biocentrum.dtu.dk

Chapter 5

Dr P. Paulsen and Professor F.J.M.


Institute of Meat Hygiene University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna

Contributor contact details

A1210 Vienna Austria Tel 43-1-25077-3318 E-mail: peter.paulsen@vu-wien.ac.at

Chapter 6

Dr H. Park Graduate School of Biotechnology Korea University 5-Ka Anam-Dong Sungbuk-Ku Seoul 136-701 Korea

Fax: 82 2 3290 3450 E-mail: hjpark@korea.ac.kr E-mail: hjpark@clemson.edu

Chapter 7

Professor F.-K. Lucke Department of Household

Management, Nutrition, Food Quality (FB OE)

University of Applied Sciences


Marquardstr. 35 D-36039 Fulda Germany

E-mail: Friedrich-Karl.Luecke@he fh-fulda.de

Chapter 8

Professor S.M. Alzamora Department of Industry, FCEyN Universidad de Buenos Aires Ciudad Universitaria

1428 Buenos Aires Argentina

E-mail: alzamora@ciudad.com.ar

Chapter 9

Dr Graham Bown Retort Product Manager, Food

Flexibles Europe

Alcan Packaging PO Box 3 Nightingale Way Midsomer Norton Radstock BA3 4AA UK

E-mail: graham.bown@alcan.com

Chapter 10

Dr L. Beney, Dr J. Perrier-Cornet,

Dr F. Fine, Professor P. Gervais ENSBANA 1 Esplanade Erasme 21000 Dijon France

Chapter 1

Dr V.K. Juneja Food Safety Research Unit USDA-ARS-ERRC 600 E. Mermaid Lane Wyndmoor PA 19038 USA xiv Contributors

Tel: 215-233-6500 Fax: 215-233-6406 E-mail: vjuneja@arserrc.gov

Chapter 12

Dr C. J. Kennedy Nutrifreeze Ltd 8 Roland Court Huntington Road York, YO32 9PW UK

Chapter 13

Associate Professor J. Botella Department of Botany University of Queensland Brisbane Qld 4072 Australia

Tel: 61-7-3365 1128 Fax: 61-7-3365 1699 E-mail: j.botella@botany.uq.edu.au

Chapter 14

Dr A. Grandison School of Food Biosciences The University of Reading PO Box 226 Reading, RG6 6AP UK

Tel: + 4 (0)1189 316724 Fax: +4 (0)1189 316649 E-mail: a.s.grandison@reading.ac.uk

Chapter 15

S. Green, N. Basaran and Professor

B.G. Swanson

Food Science & Human Nutrition Washington State University 106K FSHN Building PO Box 646376 Pullman WA 99164-6376 USA

Chapter 16

Professor T.J. Mason and Dr L.


School of Science and the


Coventry University Priory Street Coventry CV1 5FB UK

Dr. F. Chemat Faculte des Sciences Universite de la Reunion 15 Avenue Rene Cassin – BP 7151 F-97715 St Denis Messag. Cedex 9 France

Chapter 17

Professor B. Ooraikul Dept of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science

Contributors xv

University of Alberta Edmonton AB Canada T6G 2P5

Fax: 780 492 8914 E-mail: ooraikul@ualberta.ca

Chapter 18

Dr L. Picart and Professor J-C.


Unite de Biochimie et Technologie


Universite des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc

F-34095 Montpellier CDX05 France

Chapter 19

Dr Indrawati, Dr A. Van Loey, Dr C.

Smout and Professor M. Hendrickx

Dept of Food and Microbial


Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Kasteelpark Arenberg 2 B-3001 Leuven Belgium

Fax: +32 16 321960 E-mail: indrawati.hartono@agr kuleuven.ac.be

Chapter 20

Dr J.P. Sutherland Department of Health and Human Sciences

London Metropolitan University 166–220 Holloway Road London N7 8DB UK

Chapter 21

Dr E. Dens and Professor J. Van Impe Department of Chemical Engineering BioTeC-Bioprocess Technology and


Katholieke Universiteit Leuven W. de Croylaan 46 B-3001 Leuven Belgium

Tel: +32-16-321466 Fax: +32-16-322991 E-mail: jan.vanimpe@cit.kuleuven ac.be

Chapter 2

Professor M. Peleg Department of Food Science Chenoweth Laboratory University of Massachusetts Amherst MA 01003-1410 USA

Tel: (413) 545-5852 Fax: (413) 545-1262 E-mail: Micha.peleg@foodsci.umass edu xvi Contributors

Chapter 23

Professor S. Brul, Dr F. Klis,

Professor D. Knorr, Dr T. Abee and Dr S. Notermans

Food Processing Group Unilever Research Olivier van Noortlaan 120 3133 AT Vlaardingen The Netherlands

Tel: 31-10-4604151 Fax: 31-10-4605188 E-mail: Stanley.brul@unilever.com

Chapter 24

Dr P. Zeuthen* Hersegade 7 G, DK-4000 Roskilde Tel/ Fax: 46355665 E-mail: peter.zeuthen@image.dk

Dr Leif Bøgh-Sørensen Danish Veterinary and Food


Morkhoj Bygade 19 DK-2860 Soborg Denmark

E-mail: lbs@fdir.dk

Contributors xvii

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2.7 Future Trends
2.9 References
3. Natural Antioxidants
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Classifying Natural Antioxidants

2.4 Natural Antimicrobials from Microbial Sources 2.5 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Antimicrobials 2.6 Key Issues in Using Natural Antimicrobials 2.8 Sources of Further Information and Advice


3.3 Antioxidants from Oilseeds, Cereals and Grain

3.5 Using Natural Antioxidants in Food
3.6 Improving Antioxidant Functionality

3.4 Antioxidants from Fruits, Vegetables, Herbs and

3.8 Future Trends

3.7 Combining Antioxidants with Other Preservation 3.9 Sources of Further Information and Advice

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5.1 Introduction
5.2 Microbial Contamination of Meat

Preservation Techniques: the Case of Meat

5.4 Regulatory and Safety Issues

5.3 Using Organic Acids to Control Microbial

Preservation Techniques
5.6 Conclusion
5.7 References
6. Edible Coatings

5.5 Combining Organic Acids with Other 6.1 Introduction: the Development of Edible Coating

Gas Composition
6.3 Selecting Edible Coatings
6.6 Determining Diffusivities of Fruits

6.2 How Edible Coatings Work: Controlling Internal 6.4 Gas Permeation Properties of Edible Coatings 6.5 Wettability and Coating Effectiveness 6.7 Measuring Internal Gas Composition of Fruits

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7.6 The Use of pH Control to Preserve Vegetable, Fruits, Sauces and Cereal Products

7.7 Future Trends
7.8 References
8. The Control of Water Activity
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The Concept of Water Activity

8.3 Water Activity, Microbial Growth, Death and

Preservation Techniques

8.4 Combining Control of Water Activity with Other

High Moisture Foods

8.5 Applications: Fully Dehydrated, Intermediate and

8.7 Future Trends

8.6 Measurement and Prediction of Water Activity in 8.8 Sources of Further Information and Advice 8.9 References ..............................................................

10.1 Introduction

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide ea 10.2 The Thermal Destruction of Microorganisms

10.3 The Effects of Dehydration and Hydrostatic Pressure on Microbial Thermotolerance

10.4 Temperature Variation and Microbial Viability

Pressure and Water Activity
10.6 Conclusions
10.7 References

10.5 Combining Heat Treatment, Hydrostatic

1. Combining Traditional and New Preservation Techniques to Control Pathogens: the Case of

1.1 Introduction
1.3 The Heat Resistance of E. coli

1.2 Pathogen Growth Conditions: the Case of


1.4 Problems in Combining Traditional Preservation


1.5 Combining Traditional and New Preservation 1.6 Conclusions and Future Trends ...............................

13. Biotechnology and Reduced Spoilage

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in Plants

13.1 Introduction: Mechanisms of Post-Harvest Spoilage 13.2 Methods for Reducing Spoilage in Fruits 13.3 Methods for Reducing Spoilage in Vegetables

13.5 Future Trends
13.7 References
14.1 Introduction
14.3 Filtration Equipment
14.5 Future Trends
14.7 References

13.4 Enhancing Plant Resistance to Diseases and 13.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice 14. Membrane Filtration Techniques in Food Preservation 14.2 General Principles of Membrane Processing 14.4 Using Membranes in Food Preservation 14.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice 14.8 Acknowledgement ...................................................

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and Enzymes

16.4 Ultrasonic Inactivation of Microorganisms, Spores

16.6 Ultrasonic Equipment
16.7 Conclusions
16.8 References
17. Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)
17.1 Introduction
17.3 MAP Gases
17.4 Packaging Materials
17.5 Quality Assurance

16.5 Ultrasound in Combination with Other Preservation 17.2 The Use of MAP to Preserve Foods

17.6 Using MAP and Other Techniques to Preserve Fresh and Minimally Processed Produce

17.7 Using MAP and Other Techniques to Preserve Processed Meat, Bakery and Other Products

17.8 Future Trends

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18.10 Applications
18.1 Acknowledgements
18.12 References
18.13 Patents

18.9 Strengths and Weaknesses as a Pres

19.1 Introduction
19.2 Principles and Technologies

19. High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology in Food 19.3 Effects of High Pressure on Microorganisms


19.4 Effects of High Pressure on Quality-Related

Colour Quality

19.5 Effects of High Pressure on Nutritional

of Foods
19.7 Future Trends

19.6 Effects of High Pressure on Water-Ice Transition 19.8 Sources of Further Information and Advice

20.8 Future Trends
20.10 References

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Solid Food Systems
21.1 Introduction

21. Modelling Applied to Foods: Predictive Micobiol

21.3 Factors Affecting Microbial Growth
21.6 Evaluating Types of Model
21.8 Conclusions and Future Trends
21.10 References

21.2 Microbial Growth in Solid Food Systems: Colony 21.4 Microbial Growth Dynamics: Cell Level 21.5 Microbial Growth Dynamics: Colony Level 21.7 Selecting the Right Modelling Approach 21.9 Sources of Further Information and Advice


2. Modelling Applied to Processes: the Case of The 2.1 Introduction ..............................................................

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23.5 Future Trends
23.7 Acknowledgements
23.8 References
24.1 Introduction

23.4 Understanding Microbial Adaptation to Stress 23.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice 24. Monitoring the Effectiveness of Food Preservation 24.2 HACCP and Other Monitoring Systems

24.3 Instrumentation for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Food Preservation during Processing

during Storage and Distribution
24.5 Future Trends
24.6 References

24.4 Monitoring the Effectiveness of Food Preservation Index ..................................................................................

One of the major advances in human history was the ability to preserve food. It was the prerequisite to man settling down in one place, instead of moving from place to place in the never ending hunt for fresh food. The earliest preservation technologies developed were drying, smoking, chilling and heating. Later on the art of controlling these technologies was developed. The work of Pasteur in the nineteenth century then made it possible to understand the real mode of operation of preservation techniques such as heating, chilling and freezing, providing the basis for more systematic monitoring and control.

The use of various compounds such as salt and spices to preserve foods was also used in ancient times. Unfortunately, the gradual use of a wider range of chemicals for preservation such as boron or cumarine sometimes led to misuse. Consumers have developed some suspicion of the use of chemical additives, sometimes with good reason in such cases as antibiotics and materials such as hexamethyltetramine (which during processing and storage develops into formaldehyde).

Consumers have fewer reservations about physical treatments, although one of the oldest technologies, smoking, is now suspected of being carcinogenic. Another more recent physical treatment which is also much under debate is irradiation. Many studies have shown it to be safe and it has been approved for use in food processing in several countries, e.g., the USA, because it has proved to be the best way to kill Salmonella and other pathogenic bacteria. However, irradiation of foods is not used in practice in most countries in Europe because of continuing consumer concerns about the safety of the technology.

Recent debate about preservation techniques has focused on ways of preserving foods in a way that is both safe but also preserves the intrinsic nutritional and sensory qualities present in raw and fresh food by minimising the

1 Introduction amount and severity of subsequent processing operations. This is why minimally processed foods have gained such great popularity, although they raise new safety risks. As an example, they often rely on an effective cold chain during storage and distribution to prevent microbial growth. This book describes both established and new preservation methods which embrace biotechnology and physics. Both methods offer the possibility of preserving food safely with a minimal impact on quality. The book describes the principles behind individual preservation methods, the foods to which they can be applied, their impact on food safety and quality, their strengths and limitations. It also shows how individual techniques have been combined to achieve the twin goals of food safety and quality. The book tries to describe a status quo of where we are in the development of food preservation techniques at the beginning of a new millennium, and some of the things we still need to do.

(Parte 1 de 7)