LaTeX 2e for authors

LaTeX 2e for authors

(Parte 1 de 9)

LATEX2ε for authors c© Copyright 1995–1999, LATEX3 Project Team. All rights reserved.


1.1 LATEX2ε—The new LATEX release2
1.2 LATEX3—The long-term future of LATEX3
1.3 Overview3
1.4 Further information4

1 Introduction 2

2.1 What are classes and packages?5
2.2 Class and package options6
2.3 Standard classes6
2.4 Standard packages7
2.5 Related software8

2 Classes and packages 4

3.1 Initial commands10
3.2 Preamble commands10
3.3 Document structure12
3.4 Definitions12
3.5 Boxes14
3.6 Measuring things16
3.7 Line endings16
3.8 Controlling page breaks16
3.9 Floats17
3.10 Font changing: text17
3.1 Font changing: math18
3.12 Ensuring math mode19
3.13 Setting text superscripts19
3.14 Text commands: all encodings19
3.15 Text commands: the T1 encoding2
3.16 Logos2
3.17 Picture commands23
3.18 Old commands23
4.1 Warning24
4.2 Font selection problems25
4.3 Native mode25

4 LATEX 2.09 documents 24 5 Local modifications 26

6.1 New error messages27
6.2 Old internal commands28
6.3 Old files29
6.4 Where to go for more help29

1 Introduction

Welcome to LATEX2ε, the new standard version of the LATEX Document Preparation System.

This document describes how to take advantage of the new features of LATEX, and how to process your old LATEX documents with LATEX2ε. However, this document is only a brief introduction to the new facilities and is intended for authors who are already familiar with the old version of LATEX. It is not a reference manual for LATEX2ε nor is it a complete introduction to LATEX.

1.1 LATEX2ε—The new LATEX release

The previous version of LATEX was known as LATEX 2.09. Over the years many extensions have been developed for LATEX. This is, of course, a sure sign of its continuing popularity but it has had one unfortunate result: incompatible LATEX formats came into use at different sites. This included ‘standard LATEX 2.09’,

LATEX built with the New Font Selection Scheme (NFSS), SliTEX, AMS-LATEX, and so on. Thus, to process documents from various places, a site maintainer was forced to keep multiple versions of the LATEX program. In addition, when looking at a source file it was not always clear for which format the document was written.

To put an end to this unsatisfactory situation, LATEX2ε has been produced; it brings all such extensions back under a single format and thus prevents the pro- liferation of mutually incompatible dialects of LATEX 2.09. With LATEX2ε the ‘new font selection scheme’ is standard and, for example, amsmath (formerly the AMS-LATEX format) or slides (formerly the SliTEX format) are simply extensions, which may be loaded by documents using the same base format.

The introduction of a new release also made it possible to add a small number of often-requested features and to make the task of writing packages and classes simpler.

1.2 LATEX3—The long-term future of LATEX

LATEX2ε is the consolidation step in a comprehensive reimplementation of the

LATEX system. The next major release of LATEX will be LATEX3, which will include a radical overhaul of the document designers’ and package writers’ in- terface to LATEX.

LATEX3 is a long-term research project but, until it is completed, the project team are committed to the active maintenance of LATEX2ε. Thus the experience gained from the production and maintenance of LATEX2ε will be a major influence on the design of LATEX3. A brief description of the project can be found in the document ltx3info.tex.

If you would like to support the project then you are welcome to send donations to the LATEX3 Project Fund; this has been set up to help the research team by financing various expenses associated with this voluntary work of maintaining the current LATEX and developing LATEX3.

The fund is administered by The TEX Users Group and by various local user groups. Information about making donations and joining these groups is avail- able from:

TEX Users Group, P.O. Box 1239, Three Rivers, CA 93271-1239, USA Fax: +1 209 561 4584 Email:

UK TUG, 1 Eymore Close, Selly Oak, Birmingham B29 4LB, UK Fax: +4 121 476 2159 Email:

The LATEX3 project has its home page on the World Wide Web at:

This page describes LATEX and the LATEX3 project, and contains pointers to other LATEX resources, such as the user guides, the TEX Frequently Asked Questions, and the LATEX bugs database.

Older articles covering aspects of the LATEX3 project are also available for anonymous ftp from the Comprehensive TEX Archive, in the directory:


The file ltx3pub.bib in that directory contains an abstract of each of the files.

1.3 Overview

This document contains an overview of the new structure and features of LATEX.

It is not a self-contained document, as it contains only the features of LATEX which have changed since version 2.09. You should read this document in con- junction with an introduction to LATEX.

Section 2 contains an overview of the new structure of LATEX documents. It describes how classes and packages work and how class and package op- tions can be used. It lists the standard packages and classes which come with LATEX.

Section 3 describes the new commands available to authors in LATEX2ε.

Section 4 shows how to process old LATEX documents with LATEX2ε.

Section 6 contains advice on dealing with problems you may encounter in run- ning LATEX2ε. It lists some error messages which are new in LATEX2ε and it describes some of the more common problems and how to cure them, or where to find further information.

1.4 Further information

For a general introduction to LATEX, including the new features of LATEX2ε, you should read LATEX: A Document Preparation System by Leslie Lamport [5].

A more detailed description of the new features of LATEX, including an overview of more than 150 packages, is to be found in The LATEX Companion by Michel Goossens, Frank Mittelbach and Alexander Samarin [1].

Packages and programs for producing and manipulating graphics are discussed at length in The LATEX Graphics Companion by Michel Goossens, Sebastian Rahtz and Frank Mittelbach [2].

Solutions for publishing with LATEX on the World Wide Web are given in The LATEX Web Companion by Michel Goossens and Sebastian Rahtz [3].

For more information about the many new LATEX packages you should read the package documentation, which should be available from the same source as your copy of LATEX. There are a number of documentation files which accompany every copy of

LATEX. A copy of LATEX News will come out with each six-monthly release of LATEX; it will be found in the files ltnews*.tex. The class- and package-writer’s guide LATEX2ε for Class and Package Writers describes the new LATEX features for writers of document classes and packages; it is in clsguide.tex. The guide

LATEX2ε Font Selection describes the LATEX font selection scheme for class- and package-writers; it is in fntguide.tex. Support for cyrillic languages in LATEX is described in Cyrillic languages support in LATEX.

We are gradually turning the source code for LATEX into a LATEX document

LATEX: the program. This document includes an index of LATEX commands and can be typeset from source2e.tex.

For more information about TEX and LATEX, please contact your local TEX Users Group, or the international TEX Users Group (see page 3).

2 Classes and packages

This section describes the new structure of LATEX documents and the new types of file: classes and packages.

2.1 What are classes and packages?

The main difference between LATEX 2.09 and LATEX2ε is in the commands before \begin{document}.

In LATEX 2.09, documents had styles, such as article or book, and options, such as twoside or epsfig. These were indicated by the \documentstyle command:

For example, to specify a two-sided article with encapsulated PostScript figures, you said:

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