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HARBISON-WALKER Handbook of Refractory Practice
© 2005 Harbison-Walker Refractories Co.
Harbison-Walker Refractories Company 400 Fairway Drive Moon Township, PA 15108
© 2005 Harbison-Walker Refractories Company. All Rights Reserved.
Harbison-Walker Refractories Company 400 Fairway Drive Moon Township, PA15108
Phone: (412) 375-60 Fax: (412) 375-6783 w.hwr.com
Handbook of Refractory Practice
DISCLAIMER:The information presented in this book is for general educational use only. It does not contain recommendations for any particular refractory for any particular use. It is not intended as, and should not be taken as, a warranty of any kind, including but not limited to a warranty of fitness.
WARNING:Some materials which are present in refractory products are harmful. One such group is classified as substances known to cause cancer to humans. Other substances may be classified as probably or possibly carcinogenic. These materials include minerals used in or formed during the manufacture of these products. The primary threat presented by many of these materials comes from inhaling respirable dust. The use of proper respiratory equipment, as well as other personal protective equipment is mandatory where required by applicable law. Please refer to the applicable Material Safety Data Sheet for such product.
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Handbook of Refractory Practice
Table of Contents
Section 1 Introduction I
Section 2 Classes of Refractories CR
Section 3 Properties of Refractories PR
Section 4 Using Refractories UR
Section 5 Monolithic and Ceramic Fiber Products MP
Section 6 Brick Products BP
Section 7 Installation References IR
Section 8 Appendix A
Section 9 Literature L Data Sheets w.hwr.com
History of Harbison-Walker1
Technical Research Capabilities3 Broad-Based Expertise 4
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Out of the Fire The history of high heat manufacturing and refractory technology began with the discovery of fire. Nature provided the first refractories, crucibles of rock where metals were softened and shaped into primitive tools. Modern refractories are customized, high-temperature ceramics designed to withstand the destructive and extreme service conditions needed to manufacture metals, glass, cement, chemicals, petroleum and other essentials of contemporary life.
The History of Harbison-Walker The refractories company known as Harbison-Walker opened on March 7, 1865, as the Star Fire Brick Company. The firm was founded by J.K. Lemon, a Pittsburgh entrepreneur who hoped to build a fortune on America’s growing demand for refractory brick following the Civil War.
In 1866, Lemon hired Samuel
Pollock Harbison as a part-time bookkeeper. Within four years, the ambitious accountant had acquired enough stock and refractory expertise to be named General Manager of Star Fire Brick. In 1875, Harbison teamed with another stockholder, Hay Walker, to purchase the underachieving company, and renamed it Harbison-Walker.
Almost immediately, Harbison and Walker realized a major opportunity to grow their business and its reputation. Through an on-going relationship with Thomas Carnegie, the fledging company landed a contract from Kloman, Carnegie, and Company to build the Lucy Furnace, the largest blast furnace ever designed.
The company garnered accolades for the superior performance of the Lucy Furnace and began to expand rapidly, pushed in large measure by the explosive growth of the steel industry. In 1910, a 10-company merger created Harbison-Walker Refractories Company, a 3- plant operation that was the largest of its kind in the world. Harbison-Walker also thrived on its vertical structure, exerting control over every stage of its production process, through mining and raw materials management to manufacturing, transportation and distribution.
In the decades that followed,
Harbison-Walker established and fortified its position of industry leadership by building new facilities and acquiring related organizations.
•In 1916, Harbison-Walker organized the Northwest Magnesite Company near Chewelah, WA. This gave the company a secure domestic source of magnesite, a material of choice for industrial furnaces in short supply during World War I.
•In 1927, Harbison-Walker acquired majority ownership of Northwest Magnesite, and following World War I, commissioned the company to build and operate a seawater magnesite facility at Cape May, NJ.
•In 1945, the company purchased Canadian Refractories Limited, makers of MAGNECON, an outstanding refractory for rotary cement kilns.
•In the 1950’s, Harbison-
Walker built a high-quality magnesite facility at Ludington, Michigan. This keyed the development of several industry standard products, including directbonded magnesite-chrome brick, pitch-bonded and pitch-impregnated magnesite products, and magnesitecarbon refractories.
•In 1954, Harbison-Walker became the first U.S. company to produce refractories for the basic oxygen furnace.
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•In 1962, the company discovered massive deposits of high purity bauxitic kaolins at Eufaula, AL. This permitted the company’s Bessemer and Fairfield, Alabama, plants to manufacture significantly improved high-alumina brick that became a refractory of choice for much of the refractory consuming industries.
•In 1967, Harbison-Walker was purchased by Dresser Industries, prompting an accelerated diversification into non-steel related industries.
•In 1994, the company became a part of Global Industrial Technologies, a major manufacturer of technologically advanced industrial products. This development enabled Harbison-Walker to strengthen its presence in several key markets through alliances with other Global Industrial Technologies companies. They included Refractories Mexicanos (REFMEX) and Refractorios Chileanos (RESCA), two of Latin America’s leading refractory producers; and Magnesitwerk Aken, a German refractory maker.
•In 1998, Harbison-Walker acquired A.P. Green Industries, Inc. With 2 plants in six countries, A.P. Green, a major refractory producer in its own right, expanded considerably the global resources at Harbison-Walker’s disposal.
•In 2000, RHI AG, an Austrian company with many holdings in the global refractories industry, completed its acquisition of Global Industrial Technologies, Inc., the parent company of Harbison- Walker. RHI AG subsequently combined North American Refractories Company (NARCO) and Harbison-Walker, at the time naming the resulting organization RHI Refractories America.
Today, the U.S. and export operations have been reorganized and operate independently under the name ANH Refractories. Because of the strong reputations that Harbison-Walker and NARCO established over their long histories, the companies have retained their names and are continuing to be the refractory suppliers of choice in their respective market places. Harbison-Walker continues to provide outstanding refractory materials to meet the needs of the industrial markets, while NARCO serves the needs of the steel industry.
Harbison-Walker Today Following World War I and the subsequent proliferation of technological advances, Harbison-Walker recognized the need for additional research capacity. In 1958, the company opened Garber Research Center, now known as the Technical Center West Mifflin. The new facility vastly enhanced Harbison- Walker’s ability to test products under simulated service conditions and to conduct “postmortem” analyses of used refractory samples.
Today, the Technical Center
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