Um pouco sobre o tal do Petróleo
(Parte 1 de 10)
2003 Microchip Technology Inc.DS00887A-page 1
AC induction motors are the most common motors used in industrial motion control systems, as well as in main powered home appliances. Simple and rugged design, low-cost, low maintenance and direct connection to an AC power source are the main advantages of AC induction motors.
Various types of AC induction motors are available in the market. Different motors are suitable for different applications. Although AC induction motors are easier to design than DC motors, the speed and the torque control in various types of AC induction motors require a greater understanding of the design and the characteristics of these motors.
This application note discusses the basics of an AC induction motor; the different types, their characteristics, the selection criteria for different applications and basic control techniques.
Like most motors, an AC induction motor has a fixed outer portion, called the stator and a rotor that spins inside with a carefully engineered air gap between the two.
Virtually all electrical motors use magnetic field rotation to spin their rotors. A three-phase AC induction motor is the only type where the rotating magnetic field is created naturally in the stator because of the nature of the supply. DC motors depend either on mechanical or electronic commutation to create rotating magnetic fields. A single-phase AC induction motor depends on extra electrical components to produce this rotating magnetic field.
Two sets of electromagnets are formed inside any motor. In an AC induction motor, one set of electromagnets is formed in the stator because of the AC supply connected to the stator windings. The alternating nature of the supply voltage induces an Electromagnetic Force (EMF) in the rotor (just like the voltage is induced in the transformer secondary) as per Lenz’s law, thus generating another set of electromagnets; hence the name – induction motor. Interaction between the magnetic field of these electromagnets generates twisting force, or torque. As a result, the motor rotates in the direction of the resultant torque.
The stator is made up of several thin laminations of aluminum or cast iron. They are punched and clamped together to form a hollow cylinder (stator core) with slots as shown in Figure1. Coils of insulated wires are inserted into these slots. Each grouping of coils, together with the core it surrounds, forms an electromagnet (a pair of poles) on the application of AC supply. The number of poles of an AC induction motor depends on the internal connection of the stator windings. The stator windings are connected directly to the power source. Internally they are connected in such a way, that on applying AC supply, a rotating magnetic field is created.
FIGURE 1:A TYPICAL STATOR
Author: Rakesh Parekh Microchip Technology Inc.
AC Induction Motor Fundamentals
DS00887A-page 2 2003 Microchip Technology Inc.
The rotor is made up of several thin steel laminations with evenly spaced bars, which are made up of aluminum or copper, along the periphery. In the most popular type of rotor (squirrel cage rotor), these bars are connected at ends mechanically and electrically by the use of rings. Almost 90% of induction motors have squirrel cage rotors. This is because the squirrel cage rotor has a simple and rugged construction. The rotor consists of a cylindrical laminated core with axially placed parallel slots for carrying the conductors. Each slot carries a copper, aluminum, or alloy bar. These rotor bars are permanently short-circuited at both ends by means of the end rings, as shown in Figure2. This total assembly resembles the look of a squirrel cage, which gives the rotor its name. The rotor slots are not exactly parallel to the shaft. Instead, they are given a skew for two main reasons.
The first reason is to make the motor run quietly by reducing magnetic hum and to decrease slot harmonics.
The second reason is to help reduce the locking tendency of the rotor. The rotor teeth tend to remain locked under the stator teeth due to direct magnetic attraction between the two. This happens when the number of stator teeth are equal to the number of rotor teeth.
The rotor is mounted on the shaft using bearings on each end; one end of the shaft is normally kept longer than the other for driving the load. Some motors may have an accessory shaft on the non-driving end for mounting speed or position sensing devices. Between the stator and the rotor, there exists an air gap, through which due to induction, the energy is transferred from the stator to the rotor. The generated torque forces the rotor and then the load to rotate. Regardless of the type of rotor used, the principle employed for rotation remains the same.
Speed of an Induction Motor
The magnetic field created in the stator rotates at a synchronous speed (NS).
The magnetic field produced in the rotor because of the induced voltage is alternating in nature.
To reduce the relative speed, with respect to the stator, the rotor starts running in the same direction as that of the stator flux and tries to catch up with the rotating flux. However, in practice, the rotor never succeeds in “catching up” to the stator field. The rotor runs slower than the speed of the stator field. This speed is called the Base Speed (Nb).
The difference between NS and Nb is called the slip. The slip varies with the load. An increase in load will cause the rotor to slow down or increase slip. A decrease in load will cause the rotor to speed up or decrease slip. The slip is expressed as a percentage and can be determined with the following formula:
FIGURE 2:A TYPICAL SQUIRREL CAGE ROTOR where:
NS=the synchronous speed of the stator magnetic field in RPM
P=the number of poles on the stator f=the supply frequency in Hertz slip Ns Nb– where:
NS=the synchronous speed in RPM Nb=the base speed in RPM
ConductorsEnd Ring Shaft
Bearing Skewed Slots
2003 Microchip Technology Inc.DS00887A-page 3
Generally, induction motors are categorized based on the number of stator windings. They are:
•Single-phase induction motor •Three-phase induction motor
Single-Phase Induction Motor
There are probably more single-phase AC induction motors in use today than the total of all the other types put together. It is logical that the least expensive, lowest maintenance type motor should be used most often. The single-phase AC induction motor best fits this description.
As the name suggests, this type of motor has only one stator winding (main winding) and operates with a single-phase power supply. In all single-phase induction motors, the rotor is the squirrel cage type.
The single-phase induction motor is not self-starting. When the motor is connected to a single-phase power supply, the main winding carries an alternating current. This current produces a pulsating magnetic field. Due to induction, the rotor is energized. As the main magnetic field is pulsating, the torque necessary for the motor rotation is not generated. This will cause the rotor to vibrate, but not to rotate. Hence, the single- phase induction motor is required to have a starting mechanism that can provide the starting kick for the motor to rotate.
The starting mechanism of the single-phase induction motor is mainly an additional stator winding (start/ auxiliary winding) as shown in Figure3. The start winding can have a series capacitor and/or a centrifugal switch. When the supply voltage is applied, current in the main winding lags the supply voltage due to the main winding impedance. At the same time, current in the start winding leads/lags the supply voltage depending on the starting mechanism impedance. Interaction between magnetic fields generated by the main winding and the starting mechanism generates a resultant magnetic field rotating in one direction. The motor starts rotating in the direction of the resultant magnetic field.
Once the motor reaches about 75% of its rated speed, a centrifugal switch disconnects the start winding. From this point on, the single-phase motor can maintain sufficient torque to operate on its own.
Except for special capacitor start/capacitor run types, all single-phase motors are generally used for applications up to 3/4 hp only.
Depending on the various start techniques, singlephase AC induction motors are further classified as described in the following sections.
FIGURE 3:SINGLE-PHASE AC INDUCTION MOTOR WITH AND WITHOUT A START MECHANISM
Power Main Winding
(Parte 1 de 10)