Handbook Instrumentation and Control vol 1

Handbook Instrumentation and Control vol 1

(Parte 1 de 7)

DOE-HDBK-1013/1-92 JUNE 1992

INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL Volume 1 of 2

U.S. Department of EnergyFSC-6910 Washington, D.C. 20585

Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy.

Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. P. O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; (615) 576-8401.

Available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161.

Order No. DE92019792

Rev. 0IC

The Instrumentation and Control Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of instrumentation and control systems. The handbook includes information on temperature, pressure, flow, and level detection systems; position indication systems; process control systems; and radiation detection principles. This information will provide personnel with an understanding of the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility instrumentation and control systems.

Key Words: Training Material, Temperature Detection, Pressure Detection, Level Detection, Flow Detection, Position Indication, Radiation Detection, Process Control

Rev. 0IC

The Department of Energy (DOE) Fundamentals Handbooks consist of ten academic subjects, which include Mathematics; Classical Physics; Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow; Instrumentation and Control; Electrical Science; Material Science; Mechanical Science; Chemistry; Engineering Symbology, Prints, and Drawings; and Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. The handbooks are provided as an aid to DOE nuclear facility contractors.

These handbooks were first published as Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals in 1985 for use by DOE Category A reactors. The subject areas, subject matter content, and level of detail of the Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals was determined from several sources. DOE Category A reactor training managers determined which materials should be included, and served as a primary reference in the initial development phase. Training guidelines from the commercial nuclear power industry, results of job and task analyses, and independent input from contractors and operations-oriented personnel were all considered and included to some degree in developing the text material and learning objectives.

The DOE Fundamentals Handbooks represent the needs of various DOE nuclear facilities' fundamentals training requirements. To increase their applicability to nonreactor nuclear facilities, the Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manual learning objectives were distributed to the Nuclear Facility Training Coordination Program Steering Committee for review and comment. To update their reactor-specific content, DOE Category A reactor training managers also reviewed and commented on the content. On the basis of feedback from these sources, information that applied to two or more DOE nuclear facilities was considered generic and was included. The final draft of each of these handbooks was then reviewed by these two groups. This approach has resulted in revised modular handbooks that contain sufficient detail such that each facility may adjust the content to fit their specific needs.

Each handbook contains an abstract, a foreword, an overview, learning objectives, and text material, and is divided into modules so that content and order may be modified by individual DOE contractors to suit their specific training needs. Each subject area is supported by a separate examination bank with an answer key.

The DOE Fundamentals Handbooks have been prepared for the Assistant Secretary for

Nuclear Energy, Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards, by the DOE Training Coordination Program. This program is managed by EG&G Idaho, Inc.

Rev. 0IC

The Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook entitled Instrumentation and Control was prepared as an information resource for personnel who are responsible for the operation of the Department's nuclear facilities. A basic understanding of instrumentation and control is necessary for DOE nuclear facility operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff to safely operate and maintain the facility and facility support systems. The information in the handbook is presented to provide a foundation for applying engineering concepts to the job. This knowledge will help personnel more fully understand the impact that their actions may have on the safe and reliable operation of facility components and systems.

The Instrumentation and Control handbook consists of seven modules that are contained in two volumes. The following is a brief description of the information presented in each module of the handbook.

Volume 1 of 2

Module 1 - Temperature Detectors

This module describes the construction, operation, and failure modes for various types of temperature detectors and indication circuits.

Module 2 - Pressure Detectors

This module describes the construction, operation, and failure modes for various types of pressure detectors and indication circuits.

Module 3 - Level Detectors

This module describes the construction, operation, and failure modes for various types of level detectors and indication circuits.

Module 4 - Flow Detectors

This module describes the construction, operation, and failure modes for various types of flow detectors and indication circuits.

Module 5 - Position Indicators

This module describes the construction, operation, and failure modes for various types of position indicators and control circuits.

Rev. 0IC

Volume 2 of 2

Module 6 - Radiation Detectors

This module describes the principles of radiation detection, detector operation, circuit operation, and specific radiation detector applications.

Module 7 - Principles of Control Systems

This module describes the principles of operation for control systems used in evaluating and regulating changing conditions in a process.

The information contained in this handbook is by no means all encompassing. An attempt to present the entire subject of instrumentation and control would be impractical. However, the Instrumentation and Control handbook does present enough information to provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to understand the advanced theoretical concepts presented in other subject areas, and to better understand basic system and equipment operations.

Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook

Module 1 Temperature Detectors

Temperature Detectors TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURESi
LIST OF TABLESi
REFERENCESiv
OBJECTIVESv
RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTORS (RTDs)1
Temperature1
RTD Construction2
Summary4
THERMOCOUPLES5
Thermocouple Construction5
Thermocouple Operation6
Summary7
FUNCTIONAL USES OF TEMPERATURE DETECTORS8
Functions of Temperature Detectors8
Detector Problems8
Environmental Concerns9
Summary9
TEMPERATURE DETECTION CIRCUITRY10
Bridge Circuit Construction10
Bridge Circuit Operation12
Temperature Detection Circuit14
Temperature Compensation15
Summary16

Rev. 0 Page i IC-01

LIST OF FIGURES Temperature Detectors LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Electrical Resistance-Temperature Curves2
Figure 2 Internal Construction of a Typical RTD3
Figure 3 RTD Protective Well and Terminal Head4
When Used with Platinum5
Figure 5 Internal Construction of a Typical Thermocouple6
Figure 6 Simple Thermocouple Circuit6
Figure 7 Temperature-vs-Voltage Reference Table7
Figure 8 Bridge Circuit1
Figure 9 Unbalanced Bridge Circuit12
Figure 10 Balanced Bridge Circuit13

Figure 4 Thermocouple Material Characteristics

Detection Circuit14

Figure 1 Block Diagram of a Typical Temperature

Resistor in Place of Resistance Bulb15

Figure 12 Resistance Thermometer Circuit with Precision IC-01 Page i Rev. 0

Temperature Detectors LIST OF TABLES LIST OF TABLES

Rev. 0 Page i IC-01

REFERENCES Temperature Detectors REFERENCES

(Parte 1 de 7)

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