(Parte 1 de 6)

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GDF – SE

Técnicas de Leitura

As técnicas de leitura, como o próprio nome diz, vão nos ajudar a ler um texto. Existem técnicas variadas, mas veremos as mais utilizadas. Ao ler um texto em Inglês, lembre-se de usar as técnicas aprendidas, elas vão ajudá-lo. O uso da gramática vai ajudar também.

As principais técnicas são: a identificação de cognatos, de palavras repetidas e de pistas tipográficas. Ao lermos um texto vamos,ainda, apurar a idéia geral do texto (general comprehension) e utilizar duas outras técnicas bastante úteis: skimming e scanning.

  1. Cognatos

Os cognatos são palavras muito parecidas com as palavras do Português. São as chamadas palavras transparentes. Existem também os falsos cognatos, que são palavras que achamos que é tal coisa, mas não é; os falsos cognatos são em menor número, estes nós veremos adiante.

Como cognatos podemos citar: school (escola), telephone (telefone), car (carro), question (questão, pergunta), activity (atividade), training (treinamento)... Você mesmo poderá criar sua própria lista de cognatos!

  1. Palavras repetidas

As palavras repetidas em um texto possuem um valor muito importante. Um autor não repete as palavras em vão. Se elas são repetidas, é porque são importantes dentro de texto. Muitas vezes para não repetir o mesmo termo, o autor utiliza sinônimos das mesmas palavras para não tornar o texto cansativo.

  1. Pistas tipográficas

As pistas tipográficas são elementos visuais que nos auxiliam na compreensão do texto. Atenção com datas, números, tabelas, gráficas, figuras... São informações também contidas no texto. Os recursos de escrita também são pistas tipográficas. Por exemplo:

  • ... (três pontos) indicam a continuação de uma idéia que não está ali exposta;

  • negrito dá destaque a algum termo ou palavra;

  • itálico também destaca um termo, menos importante que o negrito;

  • ‘’ ‘’ (aspas) salientam a importância de alguma palavra;

  • ( ) (parênteses) introduzem uma idéia complementar ao texto.

  1. General Comprehension

A idéia geral de um texto é obtida com o emprego das técnicas anteriores. Selecionando-se criteriosamente algumas palavras, termos e expressões no texto, poderemos chegar à idéia geral do texto.

Por exemplo, vamos ler o trecho abaixo e tentar obter a “general comprehension” deste parágrafo:

Distance education takes place when a teacher and students are separated by physicaldistance, and technology (i.e., voice, video and data), often in concert with face-to-facecommunication, is used to bridge the instructional gap.”

From: Engineering Outreach

College of Engineering – University of Idaho

A partir das palavras cognatas do texto (em negrito) podemos ter um a idéia geral do que se trata; vamos enumerar as palavras conhecidas (pelo menos as que são semelhantes ao Português):

  • distance education = educação a distancia

  • students = estudantes, alunos

  • separeted = separado

  • physical distance = distância física

  • technology = tecnologia

  • voice, video, data = voz, vídeo e dados (atenção: “data” não é data)

  • face-to-face communication = comunicação face-a-face

  • used = usado (a)

  • instructional = instrucional

Então você poderia dizer que o texto trata sobre educação a distância; que esta ocorre quando os alunos estão separados fisicamente do professor; a tecnologia (voz, vídeo, dados) podem ser usados de forma instrucional.

Você poderia ter esta conclusão sobre o texto mesmo sem ter muito conhecimento de Inglês. É claro que à medida que você for aprendendo, a sua percepção sobre o texto também aumentará. Há muitas informações que não são tão óbvias assim.

  1. Skimming

“skim” em inglês é deslizar à superfície, desnatar (daí skimmed milk = leite desnatado), passar os olhos por. A técnica de “skimming” nos leva a ler um texto superficialmente. Utilizar esta técnica significa que precisamos ler cada sentença, mas sim passarmos os olhos por sobre o texto, lendo algumas frases aqui e ali, procurando reconhecer certas palavras e expressões que sirvam como ‘dicas’ na obtenção de informações sobre o texto. Às vezes não é necessário ler o texto em detalhes. Para usar esta técnica, precisamos nos valer dos nossos conhecimentos de Inglês também.

Observe este trecho:

“Using this integrated approach, the educator’s task is to carefully select among the technological options. The goal is to build a mix of instructional media, meeting the needs of the learner in a manner that is instructionally effective and economically prudent.”

From: Engineering Outreach

College of Engineering – University of Idaho

Selecionando algumas expressões teremos:

  • integrated approach = abordagem (approach = abordagem, enfoque) integrada

  • educator’s task = tarefa (task = tarefa) do educador – ‘s significa posse = do

  • tecnological options = opções tecnológicas (tecnological é adjetivo)

  • goal = objetivo

  • a mix instrucional media = uma mistura de mídia instrucional.

Com a técnica do “skimming” podemos dizer que este trecho afirma que a tarefa do educador é selecionar as opções tecnológicas; o objetivo é ter uma mistura de mídias instrucionais de uma maneira instrucionalmente efetiva e economicamente prudente.

  1. Scanning

“Scan” em Inglês quer dizer examinar, sondar, explorar. O que faz um scanner? Uma varredura, não é?! Logo, com a técnica de “scanning” você irá fazer uma varredura do texto, procurando detalhes e idéias objetivas. Aqui é importante que você utilize os conhecimentos de Inglês; por isso, nós vamos ver detalhadamente alguns itens gramaticais no ser “ Estudo da Língua Inglesa”.

Olhe este trecho:

Teaching and learning at a distance is demanding. However, learning will be more meaningful and “deeper” for distant students, if students and their instructor share responsibility for developing learning goals: actively interacting with class members; promoting reflection on experience; relating new information to examples that make sense to learners. This is the challenge and the opportunity provided by distance education.”

Poderíamos perguntar qual o referente do pronome “ their” em negrito no trecho?

Utilizando a técnica de skimming, seria necessário retornar ao texto e entender a sentença na qual o pronome está sendo empregado. “Their “ é um pronome possessivo ( e como tal, sempre vem acompanhado de um substantivo) da terceira pessoa do plural ( o seu referente é um substantivo no plural). A tradução de “their instructor” seria seu instrutor . Seu de quem? Lendo um pouco para trás, vemos que há “students”; logo concluímos que “their” refere-se a “students, ou seja, instrutor dos alunos”.

TEXTO 1

Every day more and more of us find that computers have become part of our daily background: magazines we read have been typeset by computers, architects have designed our houses with the help of computers, our paylips are printed by computers, we pay bills prepared by computers, using checks marked with computer symbols, and the payments result in bank statements prepared by computers. Even more directly associated with the machines are those who use them in their day-to-day work – scientists and storekeepers, clerks and directors, soldiers and sailors, accountants and engineers – besides the growing numbers of computer personal who are responsible for making the machines do the work. Each of us, whether layman, computer use or computer technician, will have problems with computer terminology.

TEXTO 2

In the beginning, there was the analog cell phone. And then the cell phone went digital. And that provides a clearer connection and more reability. Now the future of technology appears to be in the hands of the mobile phone industry. Cell phones and handhelds are everywhere. The future is now, and it is wireless. Except the future is still the future. Wireless technology is relatively young. The first generation has been around only since the early 1980s, when analog voice transmission networks were introduced. The second generation took over in the mid-‘90s with the advent of digital wireless voice and data networks, giving us the capabilities that spawned the cell phone revolution we know today.

Now comes the so-called third generation – or 3G – which generally refers to networks capable of connecting to the Internet at speeds 40 tines the rate of today’s cell phones, promising Interneting connections will be fast enough to download streaming audio and files, swap digital photos, and hold teleconferences. It will also use the existing spectrum space more efficiently and increase the speeds with which basic data can be transmitted over wireless devices.

TEXTO 3

Lamps can be connected in series or in parallel. If you connect lamps in parallel the lamps stay the same brightness however many lamps you add. This is because the voltage across every lamp is the same. In your house the lamps are connected in parallel. This means that even if you have all the lights on, the lights do not dim.

Digital Oscilloscope

For the maximum safety of the person who may use the oscilloscopes, they have been designed and manufactured for full safety features and they are shipped after stringent inspections. And yet, it is unavoidable handle it carefully, in order to avoid damage to the instruments and hazards to the persons.

Above, there are notes and warnings which the persons using the instrument must take heed of and observe:

NOTE – Calls for special attention for correct and efficient use of the instrument.

WARNINGS – Calls for attention for a matter which might lead to a damage of the oscilloscope itself or other instruments.

The following symbols may be posted on the oscilloscope as well as indicated in this manual.

 “DANGER! HIGH VOLTAGE” – This symbol means that the item cannot be charged up to a hazardous high voltage and must not be touched with bare hands.

REFER TO THE CORRESPONDING SECTION” – This symbol means that relative explanations contained in other parts of the handbook should be consulted.

CAUTION – Means a matter which can lead to electric shock hazards to the person who is operating the instrument or to damage of the instrument itself or other instruments.

USE A 3-PIN PLUG - For the input of AC input cable, be sure to use a 3-pin type (one of the pins is used for safety grounding).

AC LINE VOLTAGE – Be sure to operate the oscilloscope on an AC line voltage within is correct range.

AC POWER CABLE – When replacing the AC plug of the AC power cable, be sure to replace it with a plug of the correct type and ratings, and to connector the GND, NEUTRAL and LIVE wires which are color colored as shown in figure below:

Fig 1

AC POWER FUSE – Be sure to use a power fuse of the correct ratings.

COVERS – This oscilloscope has hazardous high voltages internally. Do not remove the covers of the oscilloscope lest you should expose yourself to such high voltages. The covers should be removed only by qualified experts.

FEATURES

  1. Easy to operate – You can easily use major functions of the oscilloscope which employs a direct knob control system.

  2. Compact and light – COR 5500U series is very compact and light for its sophisticated functions and reliable performance. This has become feasible through dexterous use of flush-mount components.

  3. CRT readout – It displays various items of information on the CRT screen, providing you with powerful means for rapid but accurate measurements.

  4. Comment display – You can display comments by using this feature.

  5. Alternate magnified sweeps – This feature allows you to magnify readily any portion of the waveform you want to observe more closely. This time base can be magnified by 5,10 or 50 times. The Alternate Magnified Sweep mode, which runs a mains sweep and magnified sweep alternately, is also available.

  6. Sampling rate up to 20 MS/s – Each channel has a 5 bit A/D converter, allowing you to store the single-shot data from both channels simultaneously. In single Trigger Mode, you can capture frequency components up to 5.7 MHz (when Curve Interpolation is used).

  7. 4k words/ channel memory capacity – each channel has a 4k word memory, and resolutions of 400 points per one division horizontally. The stored and reproduced waveforms closely resemble the original analog ones. COR 5500U series has two 4k-word Saving Memory units. The memory units are internally backed up so that the data is not destroyed even if the power is turned off. The data is maintained for a longer period.

  8. Repetitive mode – The COR 5500U can store repetitive signals up to 100 MHz.

PRECAUTIONS

  1. Receiving Inspections – The oscilloscope has been subjected to electrical and mechanical tests to guarantee the satisfactory quality and performance.

  2. General precautions - This section is about electrical and mechanical precautions for safe and correct use of the oscilloscope. Read this section before start using it:

    • Checking the AC line voltage and frequency

Operate the oscilloscope on as rated AC input voltage of 100 through 240 V, frequency 50 through 400 Hz, although it is permissible to operate the oscilloscope on an AC line voltage of 90 -250 V, frequency 45-440 Hz.

  • Checking the type and ratings of fuse

Before connecting the power cable to the AC inlet of the oscilloscope, check the type and rating of the power fuse. The fuse holder of the oscilloscope is structured integrally with the AC inlet. The fuse holder cap can be detached by using a screwdriver or a pointed tool as showing bellow. Two fuses (one of which is for replacement spare) are put in the cap.

Fig 2

Take out the fuse and check that is a slow-blow fuse of 250 V AC, 2 A. Return the fuse and cap to the original positions by following the take out procedure in the reverse order. Fully insert the cap until it clicks.

(Parte 1 de 6)

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