Present perfect

Present perfect

PRESENT PERFECT

O present perfect é uma forma verbal muito comum na língua inglesa. É usado principalmente para ações passadas que tenham ainda alguma ligação com o tempo presente.

verb have + present participle of main verb

• I have studied German for three years.

• He has gone shopping.

Muitos aprendizes de língua inglesa procuram traduzir para compreender seus usos, mas encontram dificuldades, pois às vezes podemos traduzir para duas ou até mesmo três formas diferentes em português.

Para a sentença I have worked hard these days, há em português as seguintes possíveis traduções:

• Trabalhei muito nesses dias.

• Estou trabalhando muito ultimamente [nesses dias].

• Tenho trabalhado muito nesses dias.

Usamos o present perfect:

• quando não há referência temporal precisa quanto ao passado;

• quando um fato teve início no passado e continua até o presente, em especial com as palavras for e since;

• quando o período especificado segue vigente;

• quando o fato ocorreu recentemente;

• em relatos de noticiários;

• em situações que acabaram de acontecer;

• com os time markers ever – never – already – still – yet – recently – lately;

• quando usamos a expressão de superlativo: this is the best – the most fantastic etc.

Examples:

• Mary hasn’t been to Paris [indefinite time].

• They have lived in Salvador since 1997 [time words].

• I haven’t had a vacation this year [unfinished time period].

• Argentine president has launched a new economic plan [giving news].

• She has just left the room [time words].

• This is the most fantastic fi lm I have ever seen [personal experience].

• This is the third time I watch Ghost [personal experience].

PRESENT PERFECT X SIMPLE PAST

A diferença principal entre esses dois tempos é que:

• o passado simples refere-se às ocasiões específicas no passado.

• o presente perfeito não especifica o tempo da ação.

- I went there last year [estive lá ano passado].

- I have been there three times [estive lá 3 vezes].

É, sobretudo, o uso do presente perfeito com time markers – already / yet – que confundimos com o uso do pretéritoperfeito em português.

• I have already seen that film [já vi aquele filme].

Have you seen it yet? [Você já o viu?]

Exercises (Exercícios)

 

  1. Complete the sentences with the present perfect:

(Complete as frases com o presente perfeito)

 

a) we_______________________(to travel) to Miami .

b) I ____________________( not to go) to office.

c) She ____________________(  always to see) her family.

d) ____________they____________(to walk) to square?

 

  1. use the adverbs in parentheses:

(Use os advérbios em parênteses)

 a)they have taken this train.(never)

__________________________________________________________

 b) have you seen this film?( ever)

 __________________________________________________________

 c) I have read a newspaper.( always)

 __________________________________________________________

 d) she hasn’t talked to me.( yet)

 ___________________________________________________________

  1. Use:  since, so far, for, in the sentences below.

(Use: desde, até agora, para, nas frases abaixo)

 a) she has studied here _______________ 2000.

b) They have been married ________________ five years.

c) We have stayed here _______________ now.

d) My sister has lived in Ney York __________________ 1999.

e) My father have worked that office _______________ six years.

  1. Rewrite the sentences without the contrac form. Use is or has in sentences:

(Reescreva as orações sem a contração. Use é ou tem nas frases:)

 a) julie’s beautiful girl.

 _______________________________________________________

 b) she’s traveled to London.

 _______________________________________________________

 c) he’s studied a lot to test.

 _______________________________________________________

  1. Complete with the how many or how much:

 

a) _________________money do you have now?

b) _________________ years you live here?

c) __________________ bread did she buy for us?

d) __________________ children does he have?

 

  1. translation:

 

a) quantos anos você tem?

 ____________________________________________

 

b) quanto tempo você morou New York?

 ___________________________________________

 

c) o que ele acha de seu novo carro?

 ____________________________________________

 

d) how often do you study English?

 ____________________________________________

 

e) quanta informação eles tem sobre esta casa?

 ____________________________________________

  1. Rewrite the sentences:

(Reescreva as frases)

 

a) does/ rain/ often/ it / here?/ how

 ____________________________________________

 

b) how;/ you? /old/ are

 ____________________________________________

 

c) she/ english/ studied/ has/ brother/her/with/2001/since

 ____________________________________________

 

d) you/ like/ how/ your/ city/do

 ____________________________________________

  1. Translation:

a)de vez em quando eu como geléia.

 ______________________________________________________

 

b) eu quero ouvir esta canção.

 ______________________________________________________

 

c)você já almoçou?

 ______________________________________________________

 

d) ela não tem ido à faculdade ainda.

 ______________________________________________________

 

e) você sempre tem chegado bem na hora.

 _____________________________________________________

 

f) está chovendo agora.

 ______________________________________________________

  1. use the present perfect continuous in the sentences below:

(use o present perfect continuous nas frases abaixo)

 

a) I do my job.

 _____________________________________________________

 

b) they dance for two hours.

 _____________________________________________________

 

c) she study English lately.

 _____________________________________________________

 

d) Julie sleep for 4 hours.

 _____________________________________________________

  1. rewrite the sentences below:

(reescreva as frases abaixo)

 

a) my/ painter/ a/ good/ is

 _____________________________________________________

 

b) wait/ me/ for/you

 _____________________________________________________

 

c)to clean/ house/my/I/need

 _____________________________________________________

 

d) we/ hairdresser/go/to/now

____________________________________________________

Resolução

1)

a) have traveled

b)haven’t gone

c)  has always seen

d) have they walked

 

2)

a) they have never taken this train.

b) have you ever seen this film?

c) I have always read a newspaper.

d)she hasn’t talked to me yet.

 

3)

a) since

b) for

c) so far

d)since

e) for

 

4)

a) julie is a beautiful girl.

b) she has traveled to London.

c)He has studied a lot to test.

5)

a) how much

b) how many

c) how much

d) how much

 

6)

a)how old are you?

b)how long did you live un New York?

c)how does he like your new car?

d) how often do you study English?

e)how much information they have about that house?

 

7)

a) how often does it rain here?

b) how aold are you?

c) she has studied English with her brother since 2001

d) how do you like your city?

8)

a) now and them I eat jam.

b) I want to heard this song.

c) have you ever had lunch?

d) she hasn’t gone to college yet.

e) you have always arrived just in time.

f)It’s raining now.

9)

a) I have been doing my job.

 b) they have been dacending for two hours.

 c) She has been studying English lately.

 d) Julie has been sleeping for 4 hours.

10)

a)my father is a good painter. 

b) you waiter for me. 

c) I need to clean my house.

d) We go to hairdresser now. 

e) The mailman give me a letter.

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