Palestra dada por Agostinho Calderon, engenheiro da Petrobras, no ENGEP.
Cased - Hole - Completion - and - Production - Application - Baker - Hughes
(Parte 8 de 8)
Gravel Pack Systems
Gravel packing wells has proved to be a viable completion technique to exclude formation sand from produced fluids. Gravel packing involves placing accurately-sized gravel around a screen or slotted liner in a well to form a downhole filter that prevents formation sand from entering the well, but allows the flow of formation fluids. Gravel packs can be performed in either openhole or cased-hole completions, in well deviations from 0° – 110° and in zone lengths up to a few thousand feet. Systems are available for virtually any well temperature, pressure, and environment. Gravel packed wells can be produced under high drawdown without concern of sand production. Productivity of the open- or cased-hole gravel-packed completion is determined in part by the condition of the reservoir behind the filter cake, quality of the filter cake, and stability of the wellbore.
Sand-free production, high productivity, and completion longevity are primary objectives for gravel pack operations. To achieve these objectives, operators must be able to perform gravel pack applications under various well conditions.
Several techniques are available for dealing with sand production from wells. These range from simple changes in operating practices to completions such as sand consolidation and gravel packing. The sand control method selected depends on site specific conditions, operating practices, and economic consideration.
Baker Hughes offers the experience required to analyze your particular applications and recommends the most appropriate equipment for the service condition of your well. The following are examples of gravel pack applications.
(Openhole) Stand Alone Screen Completion
In certain applications, a stand alone screen placed in an o penhole provides a simple and effective sand control completion in unconsolidated formations. The screen must be capable of fi ltering the larger formation sand particles and promote establishment of a permeable natural gravel pack. To maximize longevity and success, stand alone screen completions should only be applied in clean homogeneous sandstones with large well sorted sand grains. In addition, a screen with maximum infl ow area, such as the EXCLUDER2000™, should be selected. The EXCLUDER2000 has a shrouded design to protect the screen from damage during deployment in the open hole. The unique Vector Weave membrane resists plugging and erosion. The well should be displaced to a clear fl uid or highly conditioned mud prior to running the screen. The screen is typically deployed under a Model SC-1R™ packer. The packer is rotationally locked to the running tools to allow rotation of the screen assembly in the event it becomes stuck during run-in. In addition, an o-ring seal sub and Model GPV™ set shoe can be incorporated into the hook-up to provide circulation out the end of the screen to assist in screen deployment or for use in spotting fi lter cake breaker fl uids in the open hole. Note that a stand alone screen completion should not be used in a cased hole well. Filling the perforation tunnels with formation sand limits infl ow area and results in a high pressure drop across the completion. Cased holes requiring sand control should be gravel packed.
Millout Extension Crossover Sub
Pup Joint GPV Set Shoe
Blank Pipe Gravel Pack
CS-300 Openhole Gravel Pack Completion
For most open holes drilled in unconsolidated formations, a gravel pack is the preferred completion option. By fi lling the annulus between the screen and open hole with specially sized, high permeability gravel pack sand, the wellbore is stabilized to control production of formation sand and protect the screen from plugging or erosion. When performed with proper procedures and tools, openhole gravel packs can be highly productive and long lasting completions. To maximize success, the open hole must be drilled with a specialized drill-in fl uid. The well must then be thoroughly and rigorously cleaned by circulating completion brine and selected pills at high rates leaving only the fi lter cake intact on the borehole walls. The screen assembly is then deployed below the CS-300™ openhole gravel pack system. This system is designed specifi cally for openhole gravel pack completions and ensures that hole stability is maintained during screen deployment, packer setting, and gravel packing by allowing hydrostatic pressure to be maintained on the fi lter cake at all times. Openhole gravel packing is applicable to short and long intervals (up to several thousand feet) with well deviations ranging from vertical to horizontal. The Baker Hughes proprietary design software is used to ensure the gravel pack is successfully placed in the well.
SC Setting Tool SC-1R Packer
GD Sliding Sleeve Seal Bore Sub
S-1Shifting Tool Indicating Coupling
CK-FRAQ Frac Pack System
Optimized frac-pack performance with minimal risk
The Baker Hughes rugged high performance CK FRAQ™ system optimizes pump rate and volume capabilities associated with ceramic proppant fracpack applications while minimizing sticking and casing erosion risks. The CK FRAQ system incorporates downhole components designed specifi cally for high treating pressures with extreme fl uid velocities and large proppant volumes, as well as job planning and the execution of computer software.
Upper Indicating Coupling
Indicating Coupling"A" SMART Collet
S-1 Shifting Tool FASTool
Fraq Port with Ball Catcher Sub-Assembly
"A" M.A.I. Collet
(Parte 8 de 8)