classificação Gimnosperma 2011

classificação Gimnosperma 2011

(Parte 1 de 4)

Accepted by M. Fay: 5 Nov. 2010; published: 18 Feb. 2011 5

PHYTOTAXA ISSN 1179-3155 (print edition)

Phytotaxa 19: 5–70(2011)

ISSN 1179-3163 (online edition)Copyright © 2011 Magnolia Press w.mapress.com/phytotaxa/ Article

A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms

MAARTEN J.M. CHRISTENHUSZ1, JAMES L. REVEAL2, ALJOS FARJON3, MARTIN F. GARDNER4 ,

ROBERT R. MILL4 & MARK W. CHASE5Botanical Garden and Herbarium, Finnish Museum of Natural History, Unioninkatu 4, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki,

Finland. E-mail: maarten.christenhusz@helsinki.fiL H. Bailey Hortorium, Department of Plant Biology, 412 Mann Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-4301, U.S.A.Herbarium, Library, Art & Archives, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, England, TW9 3AB, U.K.Royal Botanic Garden Edingurgh, 20A Inverleith Row, Edinburgh, EH3 5LR,Scotland, U.K.Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, England, TW9 3DS, U.K.

Abstract

A new classification and linear sequence of the gymnosperms based on previous molecular and morphological phylogenetic and other studies is presented. Currently accepted genera are listed for each family and arranged according to their (probable) phylogenetic position. A full synonymy is provided, and types are listed for accepted genera. An index to genera assists in easy access to synonymy and family placement of genera.

Introduction

Gymnosperms are seed plants with an ovule that is not enclosed in a carpel, as is the case in angiosperms. The ovule instead forms on a leaf-like structure (perhaps homologous to a leaf), or on a scale or megasporophyll (homologous to a shoot) or on the apex of a (dwarf) shoot. Megasporophylls are frequently aggregated into compound structures that are often cone-shaped, hence the colloquial name for some of the group: conifers. Homologies of the ovuliferous structures as yet are not entirely resolved. Seeds of gymnosperms may be enclosed at maturity by fused cone scales or bracts, which are sometimes fleshy causing the fruiting structures (cones) to be confused with berries (e.g. juniper “berries”). In spite of their often slow rates of growth and long periods between pollination and seed maturity, gymnosperms can be dominant in some areas. Some extant cycads and gnetophytes are entirely or primarily insect pollinated, whereas Ginkgo and all conifers are wind pollinated. Only a few species are known to be polyploid, and no species are reported to be allopolyploid. Extant gymnosperms are not numerous. There are about 1026 species in all: the three ‘nonconifer’ groups comprise ca 310 species of cycads in 10 genera, one extant ginkgophyte and 80–100 gnetophytes in three genera; according to Farjon (2010) there are a total of ca 615 species of conifers in 70 accepted genera.

Hori et al. (1985) were the first to find that extant gymnosperms were sister to the angiosperms, but they included only three genera, Cycas, Ginkgo and Metasequoia, so this was not considered a particularly good evaluation of the topic. Troitsky et al. (1991) used ribosomal RNA and also found extant gymnosperms to be monophyletic, but they too sampled taxa thinly; although a total of 1 genera were used (three cycads, two gnetophytes, Ginkgo and five conifers), and only up to six genera from the whole set were included in each analysis. Likewise, Hasebe et al. (1992) used plastid rbcL sequences on a small set of taxa and similarly found extant gymnosperms to be monophyletic. The first broadly sampled molecular phylogenetic study to examine gymnosperm relationships was that of Chaw et al. (1997), and like the other studies they found extant gymnosperms to be sister to the angiosperms. Chase et al. (1993) assumed that the sister group relationship of

CHRISTENHUSZ ET AL.56 • Phytotaxa 19 © 2011 Magnolia Press gymnosperms and angiosperms in these earlier studies was spurious and perhaps due to insufficient taxonsampling and/or long-branch attraction, so they assigned the cycads the position of sister to the rest. However, molecular studies have continued to demonstrate monophyly for both groups of extant seed plants (Ran et al. 2010).

Although the extant taxa are clearly monophyletic, their relationships to the numerous and diverse groups of fossil gymnosperms remain obscure and incompletely understood. We have not provided a formal name for the clade composed of the extant taxa; we may never know their relationships to all groups of fossil gymnosperms, which makes it difficult to know how to classify all groups of gymnosperms, living and extinct, so we have avoided this problem by simply naming only the four extant subclades. Thus, we recognise each of the four extant groups as subclasses of class Equisetopsida (as in Chase & Reveal 2009). This view differs from those favoured by other workers who have separated cycads, Ginkgo, gnetophytes and conifers as a whole, or even individual groups within conifers such as pines, Araucariaceae + Cupressaceae, Taxaceae and Podocarpaceae, individual classes, namely Cycadopsida Brongn., Ginkgoopsida Engl., Gnetopsida Eichler ex Kirpotenko, Pinopsida Burnett (Coniferopsida), Araucariopsida A.V.Bobrov & Melikian, Taxopsida Lotsy and Podocarpopsida Doweld & Reveal (cf. Sporne 1965, Bierhorst 1971, Doweld & Reveal 1999, Melikian & Bobrov 2000, Bobrov & Melikian 2006).

Traditionally the cycads, Ginkgo, and Araucariaceae have been considered 'primitive' in the sense that they each have a long fossil history extending back to the Permian (cycads) or Jurassic, and extant members of these three groups resemble the fossils (e.g. Passalia et al. 2010, Sun et al. 2008, Kunzmann 2007), although in each case the extant taxonomic diversity is less than in the past. Gnetidae were often considered as the sister group of angiosperms (Chase et al. 1993), and Gnetum L. indeed resembles an angiosperm in general habit. For this reason, Araucariaceae were often placed at the beginning of gymnosperms, whereas Gnetidae were placed at the end. Of course, retention of plesiomorphic characters is not necessarily reflected in molecular phylogenetic trees. Early branching groups may have evolved many apomorphic characters, whereas later branching groups may have retained plesiomorphic characters. This is especially the case in ancient groups where many lineages have become extinct, such as lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and magnoliids.

The exact position of Gnetidae with respect to the other subclades of extant gymnosperms has been problematic and controversial, particularly in light of studies that indicated them to be embedded in the conifer clade as sister to Pinaceae (the so-called gnepine hypothesis: Qiu et al. 1999). Burleigh & Mathews (2004) conducted a long series of experiments that looked at phylogenetic signals in nucleotide positions that varied at different rates in genes from all three genomic compartments, and they found no consistency of position for Gnetidae. Other studies have found Gnetidae as sister to all other extant seed plants (Rydin et al. 2002), but this does not fit the fossil record in a stratigraphic sense. Morphologically, a close relationship between Gnetidae and either Pinaceae (gnepine hypothesis) or all conifers (gnetifer hypothesis) seems unlikely, but there have been suggestions in the literature that presaged this molecular result (Bailey 1944, Eames 1952). The basic conclusion of Burleigh & Mathews was that it is difficult to use molecular data to evaluate this question, but the most consistent and perhaps reasonable result supports the gnepine hypothesis. Recently, Braukmann et al. (2010) found a large number of structural alterations of the plastid genome that are shared by all conifers and Gnetidae, and in particular Gnetidae and Pinaceae uniquely share the loss of all ndh genes in their plastid genomes, which also supports the gnepine relationship. If this relationship continues to gain support, then we would advocate naming of the non-Pinaceae conifers as a new subclass rather than including Gnetidae in Pinidae.

Linear representations of phylogenetic classifications are particularly useful as tools to arrange plant material systematically in herbaria. A linear classification of the angiosperms, primarily for that purpose, was devised according to APG I by Haston et al. (2007), and this was updated according to APG II by Haston et al. (2009). We here present an analogous linear classification of the extant gymnosperms. Presentation differs from the two papers of Haston et al. (2007, 2009) in that our classification includes genera as well as families, and it includes all known synonyms at the ranks of subclass, order, family and genus. For this linear classification we have followed recent phylogenetic results published by Chaw et al. (1997, 2000), Ran et al.

Phytotaxa 19 © 2011 Magnolia Press • 57NEW CLASSIFICATION & LINEAR SEQUENCE OF EXTANT GYMNOSPERMS

(2010), and other authors as cited under individual entries. Furthermore, we have placed genera that were not sampled where we think they probably belong. For each name we have indicated its nomenclatural type by “T.” followed by the type the taxon name. An alphabetical index to genera is given in Appendix 1.

Linear sequence of extant gymnosperms and bibliography

SUBCLASS I. CYCADIDAE Pax in K.A.E.Prantl, Lehrb. Bot. ed. 9: 203 (1894).—T.: Cycadaceae. Zamiidae Doweld, Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc.: xv (2001).—T.: Zamiaceae.

ORDER A. CYCADALES Pers. ex Bercht. & J.Presl, Přir. Rostlin: 262 (1820).—T.: Cycadaceae.

Zamiales Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 490 (1835).—T.: Zamiaceae. Stangeriales Doweld, Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc.: xv (2001).—T.: Stangeriaceae.

Family 1. Cycadaceae Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 630 (1807), nom. cons.—T.: Cycas L. 1 genus, ca 107 species, East Africa to Japan and Australia.

1.1. Cycas L., Sp. Pl. 2: 18 (1753).—T.: C. circinalis L. Todda-Pana Adans., Fam. 2: 25. (1763), nom. illeg. by typification.—T.: Cycas circinalis L.

Cycas micholitzii Dyer).

Epicycas de Laub. in D.J. de Laubenfels & F.A.C.B. Adema, Blumea 43: 388 (1998), nom. illeg.—T.: E. micholitzii

(Dyer) de Laub. ( ≡ Cycas micholitzii Dyer).

Family 2. Zamiaceae Horan., Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 45 (1834).—T.: Zamia L. 9 genera, ca 206 species, tropical and subtropical Africa, Australia and America. The phylogenetic tree followed here is that of Zgurski et al. (2008).

Encephalartaceae Schimp. & Schenk in K.A. Zittel, Handb. Palaeontol., Palaeophyt. 2: 215 (1880).—T: Encephalartos

Lehm.

Stangeriaceae Schimp. & Schenk in K.A. Zittel, Handb. Palaeontol., Palaeophyt.: 216 (1880).—T.: Stangeria T.Moore Boweniaceae D.W.Stev., Amer. J. Bot. 68: 1114 (1981).—T.: Bowenia Hook.f. Dioaceae Doweld, Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc.: xv. ( 2001).—T.: Dioon Lindl. Microcycadaceae Tarbaeva, Anat.-Morf. Str. Sem. Cycad.: 19 (1991).—T: Microcycas (Miq.) A.DC.

2.1. Dioon Lindl., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 29 (Misc.): 59 (1843), as 'Dion', nom. et orth. cons.—T.: D. edule

Lindl. Platyzamia Zucc., Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 4(2): 23 (1845).—T.: P. rigida Zucc.

2.2. Bowenia Hook.f., Bot. Mag. 89: ad t. 5398 (1863).—T.: B. spectabilis Hook.f.

2.3. Macrozamia Miq., Monogr. Cycad. 35 (1842).—T.: M. spiralis (Salisb.) Miq. (≡ Zamia spiralis Salisb.) 2.4. Lepidozamia Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 30: 182 (1857).—T.: L. peroffskyana Regel. Catakidozamia W.Hill, Gard. Chron. 1865: 1107 (1865).—T.: C. hopei W.Hill 2.5. Encephalartos Lehm., Nov. Stirp Pug. 6: 3 (1834).—T.: E. caffer (Thunb.) Lehm. (≡ Cycas caffra

Thunb.) 2.6. Stangeria T.Moore, Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 5: 228 (1853).—T.: S. paradoxa T.Moore 2.7. Ceratozamia Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 3, 5: 7 (1846).—T.: C. mexicana Brongn. 2.8. Microcycas (Miq.) A.DC., Prodr. 16: 538 (1868).—T.: M. calocoma (Miq.) A.DC. (≡ Zamia calocoma

2.9. Zamia L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 2: 1659 (1763), nom. cons.—T.: Z. pumila L.

Palma-Filix Adans., Fam. 2: 21, 587 (1763), nom. rej. Aulacophyllum Regel, Gartenflora 25: 140 (1876).—T.: A. skinneri (Warsz.) Regel (≡ Zamia skinneri Warsz.) Palmifolium Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2: 803 (1891), nom. illeg. (≡ Palma-Filix Adans., nom. rej. ≡ Zamia L., nom. cons.) Chigua D.W.Stev., Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 57: 170 (1990).—T.: C. restrepoi D.W.Stev. (≡ Zamia restrepoi (D.W.Stev.) A.J.Lindstr.), see Lindstrom (2009).

CHRISTENHUSZ ET AL.58 • Phytotaxa 19 © 2011 Magnolia Press

SUBCLASS I. GINKGOIDAE Engl. in H.G.A. Engler & K.A.E. Prantl, Nat. Planzenfam. Nacht.: 341 (1897).— T.: Ginkgoaceae.

ORDER B. GINKGOALES Gorozh., Lekts. Morf. Sist. Archegon.: 73 (1904).—T.: Ginkgoaceae.

Family 3. Ginkgoaceae Engl. in H.G.A. Engler & K.A.E. Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr.: 19 (1897), nom.

cons.—T.: Ginkgo L. 1 genus, 1 extant species, China.

3.1. Ginkgo L., Mant. 2: 313 (1771).—T.: G. biloba L.

Salisburia Sm., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 3: 330 (1797), nom. illeg.—T.: S. adiantifolia Sm. (≡ Ginkgo biloba L.) Pterophyllus J.Nelson, Pinaceae: 163 (1866), nom. illeg., non Lév. (1844, Agaricaceae).—T.: P. salisburiensis J.Nelson, nom. illeg. ( ≡ Ginkgo biloba L.)

SUBCLASS I. GNETIDAE Pax in K.A.E. Prantl, Lehrb. Bot., ed. 9: 203 (1894).—T.: Gnetaceae.

Ephedridae Cronquist, Takht. & Zimmerm. ex Reveal, Phytologia 79: 69 (1996).—T.: Ephedraceae. Welwitschiidae Cronquist, Takht. & Zimmerm. ex Reveal, Phytologia 79: 71 (1996).—T.: Welwitschiaceae.

ORDER C. WELWITSCHIALES Skottsb. ex Reveal, Phytologia 74: 174 (1993).—T.: Welwitschiaceae.

Family 4. Welwitschiaceae Caruel, Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 1: 16 (1879), nom. cons.—T.: Welwitschia

Hook.f.

Tumboaceae Wettst., Handb. Syst. Bot. 2(1): 158 (1903).—T: Tumboa Welw., nom. rej. (≡ Welwitschia Hook.f., nom. cons.)

1 genus, 1 species, Namibia, Angola.

4.1. Welwitschia Hook.f., Gard. Chron. 1862: 71 (1862), nom. cons.—T.: W. mirabilis Hook.f. Tumboa Welw., Gard. Chron. 1861: 75. (1861), nom. rej.

ORDER D. GNETALES Blume in C.F.P. von Martius, Consp. Regn. Veg.: 1 (1835).—T.: Gnetaceae.

Family 5. Gnetaceae Blume, Nov. Pl. Expos.: 23 (1833), nom. cons.—T.: Gnetum L. Thoaceae Kuntze in T.E. von Post & C.E.O. Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 615 (1903).—T.: Thoa Aubl. 1 genus, 30 species, India, Malesia, tropical West Africa, Amazonian South America.

5.1. Gnetum L., Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 2: 637; Mant. 1: 18, 125 (1767).—T.: G. gnemon L.

Thoa Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane: 874 (1775).—T.: T. urens Aubl. Abutua Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 630 (1790).—T.: A. indica Lour. Gnemon [Rumpf ex] Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2: 796 (1891), nom. illeg.—T.: G. ovalifolia O.Kuntze (≡ Gnetum gnemon L.)

ORDER E. EPHEDRALES Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 1 (1829).—T.: Ephedraceae.

Family 6. Ephedraceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 1 (1829), nom. cons.—T.: Ephedra L. 1 genus, ca 40 species, Mediterranean Europe, North Africa, warm temperate Asia, North America and western South America.

6.1 Ephedra L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1040 (1753).—T.: E. distachya L.

Chaetocladus J.Nelson, Pinaceae: 161 (1866), nom. illeg.—T.: C. distachyus (L.) J.Nelson (as ‘distachys’) ≡ Ephedra distachya L.

(Parte 1 de 4)

Comentários