Bioquímica da Produção de Queijo

Bioquímica da Produção de Queijo

(Parte 1 de 8)

Milk Products Milk Products

Biochemistry of Milk Products

A. T. Andrews J. Varley

RSC Industrial ,-"v."",,_

The proceeidinl2:S First put)Usl!1ed ChemIstry 1994

Woodhead PUVtlishiing The authors have

This book contains information obtained from authentic and sources. material is with and sources are indicated. Reasonable efforts have been made to reliable data and but the authors and the for the of all materials. Neither authors nor the put)llsltler, this shaH be liable for any or caused or be caused

Neither this book nor any part may be or transmitted in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, mcludmg ph()to(;opymg, mllCf()tUlmmlg and information storage or the pubHsher

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tra<lenlaric.s and are used for and without intent to

British CaltaJclgumg in Publication Data A cata:loglle

ISBN-13: 978-1-85573-775-4 ISBN-IO: 1-85573-775-2

Printed in the United .t","U10V'UIH is available from the British Llg;htnmg Source UK Ltd

Preface of the whole food and share of a11 human with little or no pretrealtmcmt, such as are as maJlufactwrmg processes, so only quite a smalJ would generally be tbo\lgJJt of as . In this the dairying area exc:eptlon and most milk is still consumed as such rather than being made into

Nevertheless even only a part of the total milk production still rep:rescmt:s an extremely It is worth that historicalJy the oldest manufacturing industries of were to food drink namely fermentation to give alcoholic beverages and the production of cheese from milk. Both of these industries function world wide and are performed on scales from amateur in the home, through smalJ often speciallist indlllStries, to major multinational with turnovers of hundreds of millions of dollars.

ago, probably in the Middle East where the stomachs of animals were kept slaughter and used as leather-type bottles for and transporting liquids. It is thought that the of milk in imperfectly cleaned stomachs which still contained traces of the pepsin, aided perhaps by lactic led to the milk and to the realisation that the resulting curds a convenient and concentrated form of most of the protein. Also because action of the low by the fermentation of lactose to lactic the curds could be stored for considerable of time. In spite of this it is still that is the most active and fruitful area in dairy This is very apparent from the contents of this book which of a recent on advances in biochemistry. There are two r~h at

ImrtrOv'em4mts in starter to better quality

SU[len()f flavour and texture, developed in a shorter time to mtnlIDlSe and to the tailoring of cheese flavour to particular products and processes. the production of new milk coaguhmts as alternatives to traditional rennet. Both these lean on molecular techniques, the former to new with eWime profiles (peptidases, and to a lesser lipases) better suited tasks than current microorganisms, and latter to produce from mlc:rOCtrgllllllS:ms, following manipulation and a purified prO'teiJJl8Se speCIfiCity capable of milk without the formation of undesirable DV-DfO(iUCts such as bitter peptlde:S.

Biochemistry of Milk Products

In order to be successful in these obl,ectJves it is to understand in fine detail at the molecular level all process and of what takes ma1tunltiolD, iniClueJing especllllly the role of starter

The initial papers this extlenamg kD()wledflte in this area.

The second research covers the functional behaviour of milk prollems. many years as in a wide food products aJ)pli1cations because of their desirable nb"slca) attJibtlltes and nutritional rAL""'fttl!" however have sep,ara1ion methods improved to the extent that larile-!;calle plroauC110n of individual protlein COIlLloonents with functional prO'f)erttes bas become a viable rOUlle to new food ingredien1:S. such advances depend upon a at the molecular level involved" in this case of what molecular features make a a enable it to form or to stabilise etc. Once these features can it then pra1cttcaI pJropos1110n to allier via the functional behaviour and so ultimarely to produce mUOr-lma{!e proflleillS to fulfil a task. For these reasons other invitled papers

SYIl!100'SlUlm and a number of the cover not only prCKiUl=tjOtn and functional evaluation of natural but also the effect that substitution of particular amino acid residues bas on functional behaviour.

This should us a of the intleractions involved, which should in tum lead taller to with Imllro'ved pertOl'lmailce.

as the of what was the selection of topics covered may to be that the most active areas of are well and that the review-like nature of most of the papers means that the coverage is much less limitled than would be Many of the and certainly the tleClmi<llUeS will undoubtledly be applicable not elsewhere in the milk and dairy chemistry area but also outside it, in the and protlein chemistry/prollein fields. These a good stalle-of-the-art picture of current research which should be very valuable to research w01t'ker'S. graduare students and final year undergradualles with intlerests in the pra1cttcaI al)J)Ucattons of molecular and prorein chemistry, not in the quality and and but also in a much wider conllext.

We should like to thank aU those who made this possible by both their physical and moral support, and especially all the contributors of papers and whose excellent quality manuscripts made our task as editors so straightforward and enil[)Va1ble.

A. T . Andrews J.Varley

Contents

Prolteol'vsis in Lactococcus Lactis

A.J'.Ht'lfmlrJrIJ<7IlQjn. I.Mierau. J.Kok and G.Venema

New Starter Cultures for Cheese Rlvenulg

B.A. Law Pivotal Proteins for Lactococcal PrOlteol'VSIS W.M.de Vos and R.I. Siezen

ArutJIVSlS of CHY155-165RHI

_ ,._.,,:-R. BI,U1l(Jfell, J. Uusitalo and M. Penttila from Lactococci and Secon<llary Prolteol'vS1S of Milk Proteins

F.Mulholland

Functional Milk Protein Products

D.M.Mulvihill Studies of f3-l.act()glclbulin J.H.Morais Cabral and C.A.Batt

Functional of Chhana Products A.S. Grandison and A.R.Jindal

Thermal of Conditions Protein Concentrates under Fluid Shear

.'\tp"p"tl')n A.M.Dono.ld and L.F.Gladden viii

The Effect of Thermisation on the Thermal Denaturation of 'Y-Olutamyltranspeptidase in Milk and Milk Products

S. S. POIel and B.A. Wilbey

Keeping Quality of Pasteurised and High Pasteurlsed Milk B.Borde-Lekona. M.l.Lewis and W.F.Harrigan

J.:i'nnliin'" and UHT P.Kastanas. M.l.Lewis and A. Grandison

Ultrafiltration of Sweet Cream Buttermilk H. G.Ramochandra Roo, M.J.Lewis and A. S. Grandison

Index

Bioc'hemistrv of Milk 152

Proteolysis in Cheese during Ripening p.

1. INTRODUCTION

The conversion of milk to cheese curd is the first cheese varieties. all hard, and many from a few weeks to two years or numerous biochemical which texture, flavour and aroma. The of cheese food. the of

2, CHEESE RIPENING AGENTS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO PROTEOLYSIS nrl'ltp£1llvCil,J(1. in cheese varies from very limited to very mould The of nrll.tPll,lv'Cil''Cil range in size from

P1"l.tPl,lvtll' agents in cheese,.r."" .. on,gmate

COlDPjarabJe in size to a range of medium to free amino acids. the milk, starter oac:[enla first four sources are active in added to the coagulant, hn:zvl1!les from the based on the known identificiation of their

The use of model

(Parte 1 de 8)

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