Guia de nomenclatura estratigráfica

Guia de nomenclatura estratigráfica

(Parte 3 de 15)

(b) Guidebooks.—A guidebook with distribution limited to participants of a field excursion does not meet the test of availability. Some organizations publish and distribute widely large editions of serial guidebooks that include refereed regional papers; although these do meet the tests of scientific purpose and availability, and therefore constitute valid publication, other media are preferable.

(c) Electronic publication.—Publication in electronic medium, which has become widespread since distribution of the Code in 1983, is confined to publication in a journal or other publication series by a widely recognized (1) scientific society, (2) government agency, (3) academic institution, or (4) other respected scientific publisher. All versions distributed must be the same, whether in paper or electronic form, without alteration. Other requirements are as follows: (1) archival practices adequate for future availability; (2) suitable typography; (3) coding and markup practices that adhere to accepted standards; (4) database preparation that includes satisfactory search and retrieval tools, as well as the capability for downloading to a researcher’s local printer; and (5) adequate copyediting standards. New stratigraphic names can be published electronically.

Article 5.—Intent and Utility. To be valid, a new unit must serve a clear purpose and be duly proposed and duly described, and the intent to establish it must be specified. Casual mention of a unit, such as ‘‘the granite exposed near the Middleville schoolhouse,’’ does not establish a new formal unit, nor does mere use in a table, columnar section, or map.

Remark. (a) Demonstration of purpose served.—The initial definition or revision of a named geologic unit constitutes, in essence, a proposal. As such, it lacks status until use by others demonstrates that a clear purpose has been served. A unit becomes established through repeated demonstration of its utility. The decision not to use a newly proposed or a newly revised term requires a full discussion of its unsuitability.

Article 6.—Category and Rank. The category and rank of a new or revised unit must be specified.

Remark. (a) Need for specification.—Many stratigraphic controversies have arisen from confusion or misinterpretation of the category of a unit (for example, lithostratigraphic vs. chronostratigraphic). Specification and unambiguous description of the category is of paramount importance. Selection and designation of an appropriate rank from the distinctive terminology developed for each category help serve this function (Table 2).

Article 7.—Name. The name of a formal geologic unit is compound. For most categories, the name of a unit should consist of a geographic name combined with an appropriate rank (Wasatch Formation) or descriptive term (Viola

4This article is modified slightly from a statement by the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature (1964, p. 7–9). Remark (c) is from the advice of the Association of Earth Science Editors.

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Limestone). Biostratigraphic units are designated by appropriate biologic forms (Exus albus Assemblage Biozone). Worldwide chronostratigraphic units bear long established and generally accepted names of diverse origins (Triassic System). The first letters of all words used in the names of formal geologic units are capitalized (except for the trivial species and subspecies terms in the name of a biostratigraphic unit).

Remarks. (a) Appropriate geographic terms.—Geographic names derived from permanent natural or artificial features at or near which the unit is present are preferable to those derived from impermanent features such as farms, schools, stores, churches, crossroads, and small communities. Appropriate names may be selected from those shown on topographic, state, provincial, county, forest service, hydrographic, or comparable maps, particularly those showing names approved by a national board for geographic names. The generic part of a geographic name, e.g., river, lake, village, should be omitted from new terms, unless required to distinguish between two otherwise identical names (e.g., Redstone Formation and Redstone River Formation). Two names should not be derived from the same geographic feature. A unit should not be named for the source of its components; for example, a deposit inferred to have been derived from the Keewatin glaciation center should not be designated the ‘‘Keewatin Till.’’

(b) Duplication of names.—Responsibility for avoiding duplication, either in use of the same name for different units (homonymy) or in use of different names for the same unit (synonomy), rests with the proposer. Although the same geographic term has been applied to different categories of units (example: the lithostratigraphicWordFormationand thechronostratigraphicWordianStage) now entrenched in the literature, the practice is undesirable. The extensive geologic nomenclature of North America, including not only names but also nomenclatural history of formal units, is recorded in compendia maintained by the Committee on Stratigraphic Nomenclature of the Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario; by the Geologic Names Committee of the United States Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia; by the Instituto de Geologia, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, D.F.; and by many state and provincial geological surveys. These organizations respond to inquiries regarding the availabilityofnames,andsomearepreparedtoreservenamesforunitsthat are likely to be defined in the next year or two.

(c) Priority and preservation of established names.—Stability of nomenclature is maintained by use of the rule of priority and by preservation of well-established names. Names should not be modified without explaining the need. Priority in publication is to be respected, but priority alone does not justify displacing a wellestablished name by one neither well-known nor commonly used; nor should an inadequately established name be preserved merely on the basis of priority. Redefinitions in precise terms are preferable to abandonment of the names of well-established units that may have been defined imprecisely but nonetheless in conformance with older and less stringent standards.

(d) Differences of spelling and changes in name.—The geographic component of a well-established stratigraphic name is not changed due to differences in spelling or changes in the name of a geographic feature. The name Bennett Shale, for example, used for

Table 2. Categories and Ranks of Units Defined in This Code*

1562 North American Stratigraphic Code more than half a century, need not be altered because the town is named Bennet. Nor should the Mauch Chunk Formation be changed becausethetownhasbeenrenamedJimThorpe.Disappearanceofan impermanent geographic feature, such as a town, does not affect the name of an established geologic unit.

(e) Names in different countries and different languages.—

For geologic units that cross local and international boundaries, a single name for each is preferable to several. Spelling of a geographic name commonly conforms to the usage of the country and linguistic group involved. Although geographic names are not translated (Cuchillo is not translated to Knife), lithologic or rank terms are (Edwards Limestone, Caliza Edwards; Formacion La Casita, La Casita Formation).

Article 8.—Stratotypes. The designation of a unit or boundary stratotype (type section or type locality) is essential in the definition of most formal geologic units. Many kinds of units are best defined by reference to an accessible and specific sequence of rock that may be examined and studied by others. A stratotype is the standard (original or subsequently designated) for a named geologic unit or boundary and constitutes the basis for definition or recognition of that unit or boundary; therefore, it must be illustrative and representative of the concept of the unit or boundary being defined.

Remarks. (a) Unit stratotype.—A unit stratotype is the type section for a stratiform deposit or the type area for a nonstratiform body that serves as the standard for definition and recognition of a geologic unit. The upper and lower limits of a unit stratotype are designated points in a specific sequence or locality and serve as the standards for definition and recognition of a stratigraphic unit’s boundaries.

(b) Boundary stratotype.—A boundary stratotype is the type locality for the boundary reference point for a stratigraphic unit. Both boundary stratotypes for any unit need not be in the same section or region. Each boundary stratotype serves as the standard for definition and recognition of the base of a stratigraphic unit. The top of a unit may be defined by the boundary stratotype of the next higher stratigraphic unit.

(c) Type locality.—A type locality is the specified geographic locality where the stratotype of a formal unit or unit boundary was originally defined and named. A type area is the geographic territory encompassing the type locality. Before the concept of a stratotype was developed, only type localities and areas were designated for many geologic units that are now long- and well-established. Stratotypes, though now mandatory in defining most stratiform units, are impractical in definitions of many large nonstratiform rock bodies whose diverse major components may be best displayed at several reference localities.

(d) Composite-stratotype.—A composite-stratotype consists of several reference sections (which may include a type section) required to demonstrate the range or totality of a stratigraphic unit.

(e) Reference sections.—Reference sections may serve as invaluable standards in definitions or revisions of formal geologic units. For those well-established stratigraphic units for which a type section never was specified, a principal reference section (lectostratotype of ISSC, 1976, p. 26; 1994, p. 28) may be designated. A principal reference section (neostratotype of ISSC, 1976, p. 26; 1994, p. 28) also may be designated for those units or boundaries whose stratotypes have been destroyed, covered, or otherwise made inaccessible. Supplementary reference sections often are designated to illustrate the diversity or heterogeneity of a defined unit or some critical feature not evident or exposed in the stratotype. Once a unit or boundary stratotype section is designated, it is never abandoned or changed; however, if a stratotype proves inadequate, it may be supplemented by a principal reference section or by several reference sections that may constitute a composite-stratotype.

(f) Stratotype descriptions.—Stratotypes should be described both geographically and geologically. Sufficient geographic detail must be included to enable others to find the stratotype in the field, and may consist of maps and/or aerial photographs showing location and access, as well as appropriate coordinates or bearings. Geologic information should include thickness, descriptive criteria appropriate to the recognition of the unit and its boundaries, and discussion of the relation of the unit to other geologic units of the area. A carefully measured and described section provides the best foundation for definition of stratiform units. Graphic profiles, columnar sections, structure-sections, and photographs are useful supplements to a description; a geologic map of the area including the type locality is essential.

Article 9.—Unit Description. A unit proposed for formal status should be described and defined so clearly that any subsequent investigator can recognize that unit unequivocally. Distinguishing features that characterize a unit may include any or several of the following: composition, texture, primary structures, structural attitudes, biologic remains, readily apparent mineral composition (e.g., calcite vs. dolomite), geochemistry, geophysical properties (including magnetic signatures), geomorphic expression,unconformable or cross-cutting relations, and age. Although all distinguishing features pertinent to the unit category should be described sufficiently to characterize the unit, those not pertinent to the category (such as age and inferred genesis for lithostratigraphic units, or lithology for biostratigraphic units) should not be made part of the definition.

Article 10.—Boundaries. The criteria specified for the recognition of boundaries between adjoining geologic units are of paramount importance because they provide the basis for scientific reproducibility of results. Care is required in describing the criteria, which must be appropriate to the category of unit involved.

Remarks. (a) Boundaries between intergradational units.—

Contacts between rocks of markedly contrasting composition are appropriate boundaries of lithic units, but some rocks grade into, or intertongue with, others of different lithology. Consequently, some boundaries are necessarily arbitrary as, for example, the top of the uppermost limestone in a sequence of interbedded limestone and shale. Such arbitrary boundaries commonly are diachronous.

(b) Overlaps and gaps.—The problem of overlaps and gaps between long-established adjacent chronostratigraphic units is being addressed by international IUGS and IGCP working groups appointed to deal with various parts of the geologic column. The procedure recommended by the Geological Society of London (George et al., 1969; Holland et al., 1978), of defining only the basal boundaries of chronostratigraphic units, has been widely adopted (e.g., McLaren, 1977) to resolve the problem. Such boundaries are defined by a carefully selected and agreed-upon boundary-stratotype (marker-point type section or ‘‘golden spike’’) that becomes the standard for the base of a chronostratigraphic unit. The concept of the mutual-boundary stratotype (ISSC, 1976, p. 84–86), redesignated lower-boundary stratotype (ISSC, 1994, p. 90), based on the assumption of continuous deposition in selected sequences, also has been used to define chronostratigraphic units.

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Although international chronostratigraphic units of series and higher rank are being redefined by IUGS and IGCP working groups, there may be a continuing need for some provincial series. Adoption of the basal boundary-stratotype concept is urged.

Article 1.—Historical Background. A proposal for a new name must include a nomenclatorial history of constituent rocks assigned to the proposed unit, describing how they were treated previously and by whom (references), as well as such matters as priorities, possible synonymy, and other pertinent considerations. Consideration of the historical background of an older unit commonly provides the basis for justifying definition of a new unit.

Article 12.—Dimensions and Regional Relations.A perspective on the magnitude of a unit should be provided by such information as may be available on the geographic extent of a unit; observed ranges in thickness, composition, and geomorphic expression; relations to other kinds and ranks of stratigraphic units; correlations with other nearby sequences; and the bases for recognizing and extending the unit beyond the type locality. If the unit is not known anywhere but in an area of limited extent, informal designation is recommended.

Article13.—Age.Formostformalmaterialgeologicunits, otherthanchronostratigraphicandpolarity-chronostratigraphic, inferences regarding geologic age play no proper role in their definition. Nevertheless, the age, as well as the basis for its assignment,are importantfeaturesof the unit and,where possible, should be stated. For many lithodemic units, the age of the protolith should be distinguished from that of the metamorphism or deformation. If the basis for assigning an age is tenuous, a doubt should be expressed.

Remarks. (a) Dating.—The geochronologic ordering of the rock record, whether in terms of radioactive-decay rates or other processes, is generally called ‘‘dating.’’ However, the use of the noun ‘‘date’’ to mean ‘‘isotopic age’’ is not recommended. Similarly, the term ‘‘absolute age’’ should be suppressed in favor of ‘‘isotopic age’’ for an age determined on the basis of isotopic ratios. The more inclusive term ‘‘numerical age’’ is recommended for all ages determined from isotopic ratios, fission tracks, and other quantifiable age-related phenomena.

(b) Calibration.—The dating of chronostratigraphic boundaries in terms of numerical ages is a special form of dating for which the word ‘‘calibration’’ should be used. The geochronologic time-scale now in use has been developed mainly through such calibration of chronostratigraphic sequences.

(c) Convention and abbreviations.—The age of a stratigraphic unit or the time of a geologic event, as commonly determined by numerical dating or by reference to a calibrated time-scale, may be expressed in years before the present. The unit of time is the modern year as presently recognized worldwide. Recommended (but not mandatory) abbreviations for such ages are SI (International System of Units) multipliers coupled with ‘‘a’’ for annum: ka, Ma, and Ga5 for kilo-annum (103 years), Mega-annum (106 years), and Gigaannum (109 years), respectively. Use of these terms after the age value follows the convention established in the field of C-14 dating. The ‘‘present’’ refers to 1950 AD, and such qualifiers as ‘‘ago’’ or

‘‘before the present’’ are omitted after the value because measurement of the duration from the present to the past is implicit in the designation. In contrast, the duration of a remote interval of geologic time, as a number of years, should not be expressed by the same symbols. Abbreviations for numbers of years, without reference to the present, are informal (e.g., y or yr for years; my, m.y., or m.yr. for millions of years; and so forth, as preference dictates). For example, boundaries of the Late Cretaceous Epoch currently are calibrated at 65 Ma and 9 Ma, but the interval of time represented by this epoch is 34 m.y.

(d) Expression of ‘‘age’’ of lithodemic units.—The adjectives ‘‘early,’’ ‘‘middle,’’ and ‘‘late’’ should be used with the appropriate geochronologic term to designate the age of lithodemic units. For example, a granite dated isotopically at 510 Ma should be referred to using the geochronologic term ‘‘Late Cambrian granite’’ rather than either the chronostratigraphic term ‘‘Upper Cambrian granite’’ or the more cumbersome designation ‘‘granite of Late Cambrian age.’’

Article 14.—Correlation. Information regarding spatial and temporal counterparts of a newly defined unit beyond the type area provides readers with an enlarged perspective. Discussions of criteria used in correlating a unit with those in other areas should make clear the distinction between data and inferences.

Article 15.—Genesis. Objective data are used to define and classify geologic units and to express their spatial and temporal relations. Although many of the categories defined in this Code (e.g., lithostratigraphic group, plutonic suite) have genetic connotations, inferences regarding geologic history or specific environments of formation may play no proper role in the definition of a unit. However, observations, as well as inferences, that bear on genesis are of great interest to readers and should be discussed.

Article 16.—Subsurface and Subsea Units. The foregoing procedures for establishing formal geologic units apply also to subsurface and offshore or subsea units. Complete lithologic and paleontologic descriptions or logs of the samples or cores are required in written or graphic form, or both. Boundaries and divisions, if any, of the unit should be indicated clearly with their depths from an established datum.

Remarks. (a) Naming subsurface units.—A subsurface unit may be named for the borehole (Eagle Mills Formation), oil field (Smackover Limestone), or mine, which is intended to serve as the stratotype, or for a nearby geographic feature. The hole or mine should be located precisely, both with map and exact geographic coordinates, and identified fully (operator or company, farm or lease block, dates drilled or mined, surface elevation and total depth, etc.).

(b) Additional recommendations.—Inclusion of appropriate borehole geophysical logs is urged. Moreover, rock and fossil samples and cores and all pertinent accompanying materials should be stored, and available for examination, at appropriate federal, state, provincial, university, or museum depositories. For offshore or subsea units (Clipperton Formation of Tracey et al., 1971, p. 2; Argo Salt of McIver, 1972, p. 57), the names of the project and vessel, depth of sea floor, and pertinent regional sampling and geophysical data should be added.

(c) Seismostratigraphic units.—High-resolution seismic methods now can delineate stratal geometry and continuity at a level of confidence not previously attainable. Accordingly, seismic surveys have come to be the principal adjunct of the drill in subsurface exploration. On the other hand, the method identifies rock types 5Note that the initial letters Mega- and Giga- are capitalized, but that of kilo- is not, by SI convention.

1564 North American Stratigraphic Code only broadly and by inference. Thus, formalization of units known only from seismic profiles is inappropriate. Once the stratigraphy is calibrated by drilling, the seismic method may provide objective well-to-well correlations.

Article 17.—Requirements for Major Changes. Formally defined and named geologic units may be redefined, revised, or abandoned, but revision and abandonment require as much justification as establishment of a new unit.

Remark. (a) Distinction between redefinition and revision.—

Redefinition of a unit involves changing the view or emphasis on the content of the unit without changing the boundaries or rank, and differs only slightly from redescription. Neither redefinition nor redescription is considered revision. A redescription corrects an inadequate or inaccurate description, whereas a redefinition may change a descriptive (for example, lithic) designation. Revision involves either minor changes in the definition of one or both boundaries or in the rank of a unit (normally, elevation to a higher rank). Correction of a misidentification of a unit outside its type area is neither redefinition nor revision.

(Parte 3 de 15)