biocombustiveis celulose

biocombustiveis celulose

(Parte 1 de 4)

Development of Cellulosic Biofuels

Chris Somerville

Energy Biosciences Institute UC Berkeley, LBL, University of Illinois

Potential of carbon-free energy sources

Hydro Tides & currents

Wind GeothermalSolarCurrent use 0.1

1000000 TW

From: Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization, DOE 2005

Combustion of biomass provides carbon neutral energy

CO 2

Polysaccharides Photosynthesis “Combustion”

Work

Sunlight (Storage)

~90,0 TW of energy arrives on the earths surface from the sun

5% of land 650 MHa

Land 29.0%

Water 70.9%

Amount of land needed for 13 TW at 1% efficiency

Land Usage

AMBIO 23,198 (Total Land surface 13,0 M Ha)

Forest & Savannah

Cereal

4.6% Pasture & Range

Other crops

6.9% Nonarable

Types of biofuels

• Solid, burned directly

Limited potential of biodiesel

Current biodieselCapacityUS DieselUS Fuel 0

65 biodiesel companies in operation, 50 in construction 2006

Biodiesel CH

Use of algae could enable saline cultivation

Greenfuel bioreacto r http://news.com.com/Photos+Betting+b ig+on+biodiesel/200 9-1043_3-5714336.html? t

Overview of Brazil sugarcane

• ~8 M Ha planted by 2008 year

– 1500 truck loads/day

AS OF: March 2006

In operation Under construction Propose d

US Biofuel Production has Expanded Rapidly

Agricultural land use has declined http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/Baseline/crops.htm

US Corn exports are projected to increase http://www.ers.usda.gov/br iefing/Baselin e/crops.htm

Cellulosic fuels are expected to become the dominant source of biofuels

Grain Cellulose

Sugar Platform -New Enzymes

-Pretreat ment

-Fermentation

Fundame ntal Advances in Lignoc ellulose Processing and fermentation

Modified from Richard Bain, NREL

US Biomass inventory = 1.3 billion tons

Forest 12.8%

(Parte 1 de 4)

Comentários