biocombustiveis celulose

biocombustiveis celulose

(Parte 2 de 4)

Urban waste 2.9%

Manure 4.1%

Grains 5.2%

Crop residues 7.6%

Soy 6.2%

Wheat straw

6.1% Corn stover

Perennial crops 35.2%

From: Billion ton Vision, DOE & USDA 2005

26 B gals ~

High yield decreases transportation and land costs

Richard Hamilton, Ceres 500,0 gal/day scenario

>2% yield is feasible

Yield of 26.5 tons/acre observed by Young & colleagues in Illinois, without irrigation

Locations of European Miscanthus Trials

From: Clifton-Brown et al in: Jones and Walsh (eds) Miscanthus for Energy and Fibre, 2001

Miscanthus Switchgrass

Julian day 1993

Miscanthus x giganteus

Spartina cynosur oides

Zea mays

Courtesy of Steve Long, University of Illinois

Perennials have more photosynthesis

Perennials have little or no erosion

Corn

Soybeans Perennial herbaceous

From Oliveira et al in: Jones and Walsh (eds) Miscanthus for Energy and Fibre, 2001 Tonnes/HA/y of soil loss

Soil carbon increases in perennial crops with all aboveground biomass removed

Tilman, Hill & Lehman Science 314,1598

Harvesting Miscanthus http:// bioenergy.ornl.gov/gallery/index.html

Energy crops may not compete directly with food crops (yield per HA for Miscanthus, Corn, Soybean)

Madhu Khanna, University of Illinois, Urbana Miscanthus Corn Soybean

Annual precipitation Annual precipitation

Limiting factors for global NPP

Baldocchi et al. 2004 SCOPE 62

Summary of Syngas-Liquids Processes

Sy ngas

CO + H 2

Me th an ol

WG S Pu rify

N2 over Fe/FeO

(K 2

O, Al2O3 , CaO)

NH 3

Cu/ZnO Iso synt hesis

Th O 2 or ZrO 2 l k pe d

M oS

Mixe d Alco hols

Oxos e sis

H C o(

(Parte 2 de 4)

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