biocombustiveis celulose

biocombustiveis celulose

(Parte 4 de 4)

Nature offers many alternatives to ethanol synthesize alkanes, alcohols, waxes compounds would reduce toxicity and decrease the energy required for dehydration

Conversion of sugar to alkanes Huber et al., (2005) Science 308,1446

The “hydrogen economy” Justin Adams, BP

The Sleipner Experiment

1 million tons/y; capacity 600 B tons 7000 such sites needed

Visions fuels (~3-4X reduction in land use) and cellulose (~3-4x reduction in land use) cellulosic materials rather than vegetable oils (~20-40x reduction in temperate acres) reduced compounds (improved net energy efficiency)

• Synthetic catalysts could be game-changing

Summary of priorities agronomic practices

• Identify or create more active catalysts for conversion of biomass to sugars and sugars to fuels ferment all sugars produce and secrete hydrophobic compounds environmental implications

A vision of the Future

Global grain production with and without yield enhancements

Data from worldwatch

Displacing corn increase useful similar to starch conversion

Economics of Perennials are Favorable

CROPYieldper AcreValue $Cost$Profit $

Corn ($4.2/bu)($150/t) 160 bu672193*479

Switchgrass($50/t) 10 tons500138**362

Miscanthus ($50/t)

*USDA economic research service 2004 **50% as much fertilizer, no chemicals

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