Modern Ceramic Engineering, 2nd, David W. Richerson

Modern Ceramic Engineering, 2nd, David W. Richerson

Properties, Processing, and Use in Design Second Edition, Revised and Expanded

Contents

Prel." to the Second Edilion Preface to the First Edition

Introd.dion

Pad I STRtlCfllRES AND PROPERTIES 1 Atomic: Bonding, and Crystal Structure

• vii xi

3 2 Crystal Chemistry and Speci6c Crystal Structures 32

3 Phase EguUibria and Phue Equilibrium Diagrams 71 4 PbysicaJ and }bennal Behavior 123

5 Mrtblola! Bcbuior and Measurement 162 6 EI.drirl' Behayio[ 204

1 Dieledrict Magnetic. and Optical Behavior 1S1

8 Time, Temperature, and Environmental Elred! on PropeJ1Jes 313

Part I PROCF,sSING OF CERAMICS 373 9 Powder Processing

10 Shape·FonnlllR Processes J 1 D'nqfinlinn

12 Final Macbining 13 Quality Assurance pad I( DESIGN WITH CERAMICS

14 DesI&n Considerations 15 Deslp Approaches

16 FaOure Analysis 17 TougbeDing of Ceramics

18 AppUalions: Material Selection

Glossary EWed:ive Ionic Radii (or CalioD' aod AniOBS periodic Table of the Elements lodex

5% 6ZO

851 ..

4 Chapter 1

The second shell has eight electrons. two in s orbitals and six in p orbitals.

All have higher energy than the two electrons in the first shell and are in orbitals farther from the nucleus. (For instance. the s orbitals of the second shell of lithium have a spherical probability distribution at about 3 A radius.) The p orbitals are not spherical. but have dumbbell-shaped probability distributions along the orthogonal axes, as shown in Fig. 1.1. These p electrons have slightly higher energy than s electrons of the same shell and are in pairs with opposite spins along each axis when the shell is full. The third quantum shell has d orbitals in addition to sand p orbitals. A full d orbital contains 10 electrons. The fourth and fifth shells contain f orbitals in addition to s. p. and d orbitals. A full f orbital contains 14 electrons.

A simple notation is used to show the electron configurations within shells. to show the relative energy of the electrons, and thus to show the order in which the electrons can be added to or removed from an atom during bonding. This notation can best be illustrated by a few examples.

Example 1.1 Oxygen has eight electrons and has the electron notation Is'2s'2p'. The I and 2 preceding the sand p designate the quantum shell.

the sand p designate the subshell within each quantum shell. and the su- perscripts designate the total number of electrons in each subshell. For oxygen the Is and 2s subshells are both full. but the 2p subshell is two electrons short of being full.

Example 1.2 As the atomic number and the number of electrons increase.

the energy difference between electrons and between shells decreases and overl<.lp between quantum groups occurs. For example. the 45 subshell of iron lills before the 3d subshell is full. This is shown in the electron notation by

Figure 1.1 Electron probability distributions for p orbitals. The highest probability electron positions are along the orthogonal axes. Two electrons. each with opposite spin. are associated with each axis. resulting in a total of six p electrons if all the p orbitals in the shell are filled.

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