Curso de Informatica 2004-2005 - Pedro Reina

Curso de Informatica 2004-2005 - Pedro Reina

(Parte 1 de 9)

InformÆticaCurso 2004-2005Pedro Reina

El propósito de este curso es enseæar los conceptos fundamentales de la informÆtica personal, presentÆndolos del modo mÆs general posible, para que puedan ser aplicados a diversas situaciones. La audiencia a la que se orienta el curso va desde el principiante que parte de cero hasta la persona que ya conoce algo de informÆtica y busca obtener una base mÆs sólida y ganar amplitud de miras.

Otro propósito, tan importante como la simple trasmisión de conocimientos, es la convicción del lector de que la libertad de elección y de pensamiento es mÆs importante que la tecnología; para ello, se intentarÆ ofrecer una visión completa del mundo de la informÆtica personal, potenciando la utilización de software libre o gratuito.

La sociedad moderna estÆ inundada de patentes y prohibiciones de copia. El mundo de la informÆtica personal es un negocio que mueve mucho dinero, tanto en programas como en libros, por no hablar de los equipos. Aunque este autor estÆ en contra de todo tipo de copia ilegal, piensa, junto con muchas personalidades del mundo intelectual, que el conocimiento debe fluir libremente entre los seres humanos. Por ese motivo, estÆ permitido copiar el contenido de estas hojas por cualquier medio, así como modificarlo y distribuirlo. Aunque parezca mÆs lógico y œtil copiar el curso completo, tambiØn se puede difundir una parte cualquiera de Øl. Las condiciones exactas en las que se puede hacer todo esto estÆn reflejadas en la Licencia de documentación libre GNU, y son Østas:

Copyright © 2004, Pedro Reina.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License .

Aprender informÆtica es un proceso en el que hay que conjuntar la teoría con la prÆctica, como en tantas otras cosas en la vida. No sirve de nada saber teoría si no se sabe cómo se lleva a la prÆctica y tampoco sirve de nada aprender a pulsar unas cuantas teclas si no se sabe en quØ se basan esas pulsaciones. Se han plasmado por escrito las partes mÆs teóricas para disponer de mÆs tiempo para los contenidos prÆcticos; el curso consiste en la adecuada conjunción de estas dos facetas.

Se ha pretendido que estas hojas se puedan entender por sí solas. Cada una de ellas es independiente de las demÆs, por lo que pueden servir como referencia para consultar puntos concretos; no estÆn numeradas, porque pueden ser modificadas en cualquier momento.

Un buen consejo a todos los principiantes: hay que leer la información que aparezca en la pantalla. EstÆ pensada para ayudar a quien usa el ordenador, no para confundir. Si en una primera lectura algo no estÆ claro, hay que volver a leerlo. Hay que usar la lógica y el sentido comœn. Las cosas estÆn pensadas para que sean sencillas y funcionen bien; en general, esto ocurre así. Se aprende mÆs cuando se piensa individualmente que cuando se pregunta sin mÆs.

Es normal no comprender perfectamente todos los conceptos la primera vez que se leen; hay que practicarlos y volver a leerlos. El trabajo personal del alumno no se puede reemplazar por ningœn otro mØtodo. El proceso de aprendizaje exige algo de tiempo para apreciar cómo encajan todas las partes, pero es muy gratificamente llegar a apreciarlo, así como al final del curso llegar a tener la interna convicción de poder realizar mÆs tareas informÆticas y seguir avanzando en el conocimiento sin ayuda externa.

Este curso impreso se complementa con un CD-ROM que contiene programas y material de libre distribución, así como material didÆctico adicional. El CD-ROM se puede usar y reproducir con total libertad. Para conocer su contenido hay que leer el archivo que se encuentra en el directorio raíz.

Para realizar este libro se han consultado numerosos libros, revistas y material de Internet. Sin embargo, en esta bibliografía sólo se incluyen los principales libros utilizados.

Título: Open Sources, Voices from the Open Source Revolution. Autores: Varios, editado por Chris DiBona, Sam Ockman y Mark Stone. Editorial: O Reilly. ISBN: 1-56592-583-3 Este libro se puede obtener gratuitamente en versión electrónica. Título: Linux: Instalación y primeros pasos. Autor: Matt Welsh. Libro de distribución gratuita. Título: Los secretos de Windows 95. Autores: Brian Livingston y David Straub. Editorial: IDG Books, Anaya Multimedia. ISBN: 84-7614-802-X. Título: Special Edition Using StarOffice. Autores: Michael Koch and Sarah Murray, with Werner Roth. Editorial: Que. ISBN: 0-7897-1993-2 Título: HTML Creación de pÆginas Web. Autor: Alonso lvarez García. Editorial: Anaya Multimedia. ISBN: 84-415-0242-0. Título: The C Programming Language. Autores: Brian W. Kernighan y Dennis M. Ritchie. Editorial: Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0131103628.

Para la materialización del curso se han utilizado, principalmente, los siguientes programas:

OpenOffice.org Writer. Procesador de textos. OpenOffice.org Draw. Creación y manipulación de imÆgenes vectoriales. The GIMP. Creación y manipulación de imÆgenes bitmap. Mozilla. Bœsqueda de información en Internet. Gnome Transfer Manager. Descarga de archivos en Internet.

El origen de la mayoría de las ilustraciones es de estas colecciones: GRIPS ArtBox, Corel DRAW 5, MasterClips 15000, Fun Clip Art 5000, 10000 Clipart bussiness.

El autor de estas pÆginas, PEDRO REINA, agradece cualquier comentario sobre ellas que se le haga, en cualquier sentido; principalmente, la localización de errores e imprecisiones.

Julia Rodríguez ha corregido originales, ha aportado numerosas sugerencias para mejorar la legibilidad general y, sobre todo, es el constante apoyo sin el que el curso no existiría. Carlos Palmero, Jesœs García, Jesœs GonzÆlez, CØsar Casado y Fernando Lisón han aportado rectificaciones tØcnicas y gramaticales e indicado modos de perfeccionar el curso. JosØ Usera ha creado la ilustración principal del libro.

Marta Irimia, Eugenio LujÆn y JosØ Usera han colaborado con diversas traducciones. La asociación Hispalinux, especialmente Roberto Santos, ha apoyado con todas sus posibilidades la difusión y uso de este libro. Bastantes alumnos que han seguido los cursos han realizado valiosas sugerencias.

InformÆticaCurso 2004-2005Pedro Reina

Version 1.1, March 2000 Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

0. Preamble

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

1. Applicability and definitions

This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the

Document is released under this License.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or

XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML designed for human modification. Opaque formats include PostS- cript, PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

2. Verbatim copying

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3. You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

3. Copying in quantity

If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no charge using public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

4. Modifications

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission. B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has less than five). C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher. D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document. E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices. F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below. G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice. H. Include an unaltered copy of this License. I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence. J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission. K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve the section’s title, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein. L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles. M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version. N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

(Parte 1 de 9)

Comentários