Atmospheric pollution

Atmospheric pollution

(Parte 1 de 13)

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J. C. Jones Atmospheric Pollution

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Atmospheric Pollution © 2008 J. C. Jones & Ventus Publishing ApS ISBN 978-87-7681-416-8

Dedicated to:

Philip Pearce MA in gratitude for times shared with the author in Leeds in the 1970s and in California in the 1990s.

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Contents

Contents Preface

1. Introduction: The gas laws 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Ideal Gas Equation 1.3 The mole concept 1.4 Sample calculations 1.5 The parts per million (p.p.m.) concept 1.6 Nitrogen accompanying oxygen in combustion processes 1.7 Concluding comments

2. Sulphur pollutants 2.1 Origin of sulphur pollutants 2.2 Sulphur in fuels 2.3 Form of sulphur in fuels and the fate of the sulphur on combustion 2.4 Desulphurisation of fuels 2.5 Sulphur credits 2.6 Methods of sulphur dioxide detection 2.7 Sulphur pollution levels in various countries 2.8 Sulphur dioxide emissions from shipping 2.9 Acid rain 2.10 Acid rain in the age of greenhouse gas reductions what‘s missing in this equation?

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Contents

2.1 Concluding remarks 2.12 References

3. Oxides of nitrogen 3.1. Introduction 3.2 Denitrogenation of fuels

3.3 NOx mitigation during burning: the ‘low NOx burner’ 3.4 Removal of NOx from fl ue gas by selective catalytic reduction 3.5 NOx from vehicles 3.6 NOx from shipping 3.7 NOx credits

3.8 Means of measuring NOx 3.9 Concluding numerical exercise

3.10 References

4. Particulate 4.1 General introduction

4.2 PM10 4.3 PM2.5

4.4 Smaller particles than PM2.5 4.4 Concluding comments

4.5 References

5. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ozone 5.1 Introduction

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Contents

5.2 VOC from vehicles 5.3 VOC from refi neries 5.4 Other sources of VOC 5.5. Measurement of VOC 5.6 VOC and ozone formation 5.7. Ozone

6. Carbon monoxide 6.1. Introduction 6.2 Contribution from motor vehicles 6.3 Miscellaneous sources of carbon monoxide [1] 6.4 Detection and measurement of carbon monoxide 6.5 Harmful effects of carbon monoxide 6.6 Concluding remarks: trends in carbon monoxide levels in air 6.7 References 6.8 Appendix to Chapter 6

7. Metals in the atmosphere 7.1 Lead 7.2 Mercury 7.3 Cadmium 7.4 Nickel 7.5 Arsenic 7.6 Analysis of air for metallic elements 7.7 References

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Contents

8. Chlorinated pollutants 8.1 Hydrogen chloride 8.2 Chlorofl uorocarbons (CFCs). 8.3 Elemental chlorine 8.4 Dioxins 8.5 References

9. Greenhouse gases Part I: Background 9.1 Introduction to the greenhouse gas chapters 9.2 Gas radiation 9.3 Why ‘greenhouse’? 9.4 A simplifi ed model for the emissivity of the troposphere 9.5 Levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere 9.6 The distinction between fossil fuel and non-fossil fuel carbon dioxide 9.7 Carbon dioxide emissions from natural gas and petroleum fuels 9.8 Methane as a greenhouse gas 9.9 Sources of carbon dioxide other than fossil fuel combustion 9.10 References

10. Greenhouse gases Part I: Mitigation measures, emission targets and carbon trading 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from power generation 10.3 Carbon credits 10.4 Carbon dioxide from vehicles

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Contents

10.5 Carbon dioxide from aircraft 10.6 Carbon dioxide from shipping 10.7 Miscellaneous sources of carbon dioxide 10.8 Uptake of carbon dioxide by vegetation 10.9 Carbon dioxide sequestration 10.10 Concluding remarks 10.1 References

1. Radioactivity in the atmosphere 1.1 Radon 1.2 Uranium 1.3 Thorium 1.4 Polonium 1.5 Cosmic rays 1.6 Carbon-14 1.7 Iodine 1.8 Caesium 1.9 Some nuclear incidents 1.10 References

Postscript Notes

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