1 ft = 0.3048 m = 12 in = 0.3 yd 1 mi =1609 m 1 in = 2.540 cm 1 Å = 1E–10 m 1 ua = 1.495 98E11 m SUPERFÍCIE 1 m2 = 10.76 ft2 1 ft2 = 0.0929 m2

1 m = 3.281 ft = 39.37 in = 6.214E–4 mi = 1E6 µm = 1E9 nm = 1E12 pm

 1 ft3 = 0.028 32 m3 1 USgal = 3.785 dm3 1 UKgal = 4.546 dm3 MASSA 1 kg = 1000 g = 2.205 lb 1 lb = 0.4536 kg = 453.6 g 1 t = 1 Mg = 1E3 kg 1 u =1.6605E–27 kg MASSA VOLÚMICA 1 kg/m3 = 1E–3 g/cm3 = 62.43E–3 lb/ft3 1 lb/ft3 =16.02 kg/m3
 1 mol =2.205E–3 lbmol 1 kmol = 2.205 lbmol

QUANTIDADE DE MATÉRIA 1 lbmol = 453.6 mol

FORÇA 1 N = 1E5 dyn = 0.2248 lbf = 0.1020 kgf 1 lbf = 4.448 N 1 kgf = 9.807 N = 2.205 lbf

PRESSÃO (mmHg a 0 oC)

 1 bar = 1E5 Pa = 0.9869 atm 1 psi = 1 lbf/in2 = 144 lbf/ft2 = 6895 Pa
 1 lbf/ft2 = 47.8 Pa 1 mmHg = 1 Torr = 133.3 Pa

1 Pa = 1 N/m2 = 208.9E–4 lbf/ft2 = 9.869E–6 atm = 1.450E–4 psi = = 1.020E–5 kgf/cm2 = 1 E–5 bar = 7.501E–3 mmHg = 0.1020 kgf/m2 1 atm = 1.013E5 Pa = 760 mmHg = 2116 lbf/ft2 = 14.70 psi = 1.033 kgf/cm2 ENERGIA

Btu* e cal* – Valores da Tabela Internacional de Vapor

1 J = 1E7 erg = 0.7376 ft lbf = 0.2390 cal = 9.478E–4 Btu* = 2.778E–7 kWh

1 cal = 4.184 J = 3.968E–3 Btu = 3.966E–3 Btu* = 0.9993 cal* = 3.086 ft lbf 1 cal* = 4.187 J = 3.968E–3 Btu* = 3.971E–3 Btu = 1.001 cal

 1 Btu = 1054 J = 0.9993 Btu* = 252.0 cal = 251.8 cal* 1 Btu* = 1055 J = 1.001 Btu = 252.0 cal* = 252.2 cal 1 kWh = 3.6E6 J 1 ft lbf = 1.286E–3 Btu = 1.356 J 1 eV = 1.602E–19 J

ENERGIA ESPECÍFICA 1 J/kg = 0.4299E–3 Btu/lb = 0.2390 cal/kg = 0.3346 ft lbf/lb 1 Btu*/lb = 2.326 kJ/kg = 0.5559 kcal/kg = 778.2 ft lbf/lb

ENERGIA MOLAR 1 J/mol = 0.001 kJ/mol = 0.2390 cal/mol = 0.4299 Btu*/lbmol 1 kcal/mol = 4184 J/mol = 1799 Btu*/lbmol 1 Btu*/lbmol = 0.5559E–3 kcal/mol = 2.326 J/mol

 FLUXO DE ENERGIA 1 W/m2 = 0.3170 Btu*/(h ft2) 1 Btu*/(h ft2) = 3.155 W/m2

1 W = 0.7376 ft lbf/s = 1.341E–3 hp = 3.412 Btu*/h = 0.8598 kcal*/h 1 Btu*/s = 1055 W = 778.2 ft lbf/s = 1.415 hp 1 Btu*/h = 0.2931 W 1 hp = 550.0 ft lbf/s = 2544 Btu*/h = 745.7 W 1 kcal/h = 1.162 W

 1 K (∆T) = 1 oC = 1.8 oR = 1.8 oF t/oC = (5/9) (t/oF - 32)
 T/oR = 1.8 T/K = t/oF + 459.67 = 1.8 (t/oC + 273.15) t/oF = 1.8 t/oC + 32

TEMPERATURA T/K = t/oC + 273.15 = (5/9) (t/oF + 459.67) = (5/9) T/oR

1 W/(m K) = 0.8598 kcal*/(m h K) = 0.5778 Btu*/(ft h oF) = 4.018 lb ft/(s3 oF) 1 Btu*/(ft h oF) = 1.731 W/(m K)

1 lbf/(s oF) = 1.914E–2 cal/(s cm K) = 4.626 Btu*/(ft h o) = 8.007 W/(m K) COEFICIENTE DE TRANSFERÊNCIA DE CALOR

1 W/(m2 K) = 0.8598 kcal*/(m2 h K) = 0.1761 Btu*/(ft2 h oF) 1 kcal*/(m2 h K) = 1.163 W/(m2 K) = 0.2048 Btu*/(ft2 h oF) 1 Btu*/(ft2 h oF) = 5.678 W/(m2 K)

1 J/(kg K) = 0.2388E–3 Btu*/(lb oR) = 0.2388 cal*/(kg K)

1 kcal*/(kg K) = 1Btu*/(lb oR) = 4.187 kJ/(kg K) 1 cal/(g oC) = 1 Btu/(lb oF) 1 cal*/(g K) = 1Btu*/(lb oR)

Cp E ENTROPIA MOLARES

1 J/(mol K) = 0.2388 Btu*/(lbmol oF) 1 cal*/(mol oC) = 1 Btu*/(lbmol oF) = 4.187 J/(mol K)

 1 P = 1 g/(cm s) = 0.1 Pa s = 100 cP 1 lb/(ft h) = 4.134E–4 Pa s

1 Pa s = 1 kg/(m s) = 10 P = 1000 cP = 2419 lb/(ft h) = 0.6720 lb/(ft s) 1 lb/(ft s) = 1.488 Pa s

 1 ft3/min = 471.9E–6 m3/s = 1.699 m3/h 1 USgal/s = 3.785 dm3/s

CAUDAL VOLÚMICO 1 m3/s = 3600 m3/h = 35.31 ft3/s = 2119 ft3/min = = 264.2 USgal/s = 220.0 UKgal/s CAUDAL MOLAR1 mol/s = 60 mol/min = 3600 mol/h = 2.205E–3 lbmol/s = 7.937 lbmol/h

FLUXO MOLAR1 mol/(m2 s) = 0.7373 lbmol/(ft2 h) 1 lbmol/(ft2 h) = 1.356 mol/(m2 s)

C A U D A L M Á S S I C O1 kg/s = 60 kg/min = 1000 g/s = 2.205 lb/s = 7937 lb/h 1 lb/min = 0.4536 kg/min = 27.2 kg/h = 7.560E–3 kg/s = 0.016 67 lb/s

 FLUXO MÁSSICO1 kg/(m2 s) = 737.3 lb/(ft2 h) 1 lb/(ft2 h) = 1.356E–3 kg/(m2 s)

CONCENTRAÇÃO1 mol/m3 = 1E–3 mol/dm3 = 1E–3 mol/L = 1 mmol/L = 62.43 E–6 lbmol/ft3 1 lbmol/ft3 = 16.02 mol/dm3

 RESIST. ESP. (BOLO)1 m/kg = 1.488 ft/lb 1 ft/lb = 0.6720 m/kg

DIFUSIVIDADE 1 m2/s = 1E4 cm2/s = 3.875E4 ft2/h = 3600 m2/h 1 ft2/h = 2.581E–5 m2/s = 0.2581 stoke 1 cm2/s = 1 stoke = 100 cstoke = 1E–4 m2/s = 3.875 ft2/h

1 mol/(m3 s) = 1E–3 mol/(dm3 s) = 60 mol/(m3 min) = 0.2247 lbmol/(ft3 h) = = 62.43E–6 lbmol/(ft3 s) = 1E–3 kmol/(m3 s) 1 lbmol/(ft3 s) = 16.02 kmol/(m3 s) 1 lbmol/(ft3 h) = 4.450 mol/(m3 s) = 2.778E–4 lbmol/(ft3 s)

 D E B A S E kg (massa – quilograma), m (comprimento – metro), s (tempo – segundo), mol (quantidade de matéria – mole), K (temperatura – kelvin), A (corrente eléctrica – ampere), cd (intensidade luminosa – candela).
 N [= kg m/s2], Pa [= N/m2 = kg/(m s2)], J [= N m = Pa m3 = kg m2/s2], W [= J/s], Hz [= 1/s], C [= A s], V [= J/C = kg m2/(A s3)], Ω [= V/A = kg m2/(A2 s3)], (Exemplos) F [= C/V = A2 s4/(kg m2)] – farad, S [= 1/Ω] – siemens, T [= V s/m2] – tesla.

Submúltiplos→ d (deci), c (centi), m (mili), µ (micro), n (nano), p (pico), f (fento), a (ato), z (zepto), y (iocto). Múltiplos→ da (deca), h (hecto), k (quilo), M (mega), G (giga), T (tera), P (peta), E (exa), Z (zeta), Y (iota).

= 1.9872 cal/(mol K) = 0.730 24 ft3 atm/(lbmol oR) =

= 1545.3 ft lbf/(lbmol oR) = 10.732 psi ft3/(lbmol oR) = = 1.3144 ft3 atm/(lbmol K) = 82.057 cm3 atm/(mol K) =

= 0.082 057 m3 atm/(kmol K) = 1.9872 Btu/(lbmol oR)

ESFERA : V = 4 π r3 / 3 = π d3 / 6 S = 4 π r2 = π d2

CÍRCULO : A = π r2 = π d2/4 = 0.25 π d2

CIRCUNFERÊNCIA : L = 2 π r = π d

 h = 6.626 076E–34 J s (Planck) εo = 8.854E–12 F/m (permitividade do vazio)

NA = 6.022 14E23/mol = 6.022 14E26/kmol (Avogadro) g = 9.806 65 m/s2 = 32.17 ft/s2 (aceleração da gravidade) 1 / ( 4 π εo ) = 8.988E9 m/F

 k = 1.3807E–23 J/K (Boltzmann) c = 2.997 92E8 m/s (velocidade da luz no vazio)

F = 96 485.3 C/mol = 96 485.3E3 C/kmol (Faraday) µo = 4π1E–7 H/m = 12.566E–7 H/m (permeabilidade)

 Vm = 2.414 dm3/mol (volume molar ideal PTN) Método de Simpson: ∫ab f(x) dx = (h / 3) [fo + 4 (f1+ f3 + f5 +...) + 2 (f2 + f4 +...) + fm] m = (b - a) / h é par Método dos Trapézios: ∫ab f(x) dx = ( h / 2 ) [ fo + 2 ( f1+ f2 + f3 + f4 + ) + fm ] (m pode ser par ou ímpar)

v5.2 eng. jmp um, deb. outubro, 2005