**Eureka 9**

Eureka, olimpíadas de matemática

(Parte **1** de 6)

Inequalities proposed in

“Crux Mathematicorum” (from vol. 1, no. 1 to vol. 4, no. 2 known as “Eureka”)

Complete and up-to-date: October 7, 2006 The best problem solving journal all over the world; visit http://journals.cms.math.ca/CRUX/ (An asterisk (⋆) after a number indicates that a problem was proposed without a solution.)

2. Proposed by Leo Sauve, Algonquin College. A rectangular array of m rows and n columns contains mn distinct real numbers. For i =

1,2,...,m, let si denote the smallest number of the ith row; and for j = 1,2,...,n, let lj denote the largest number of the jth column. Let A = max{si} and B = min{lj}. Compare A and B.

14. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa.

If a,b,c are lengths of three segments which can form a triangle, show the same for 1

17. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa. Prove the inequality

23. Proposed by Leo Sauve, College Algonquin. Determiner s’il existe une suite {un} d’entiers naturels telle que, pour n = 1,2,3,..., on ait

25. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa. Find the smallest positive value of 36k − 5l where k and l are positive integers.

29. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa. Cut a square into a minimal number of triangles with all angles acute.

36. Proposed by Leo Sauve, College Algonquin. Si m et n sont des entiers positifs, montrer que

et determiner les valeurs de θ pour lesquelles il y a egalite.

54. Proposed by Leo Sauve, College Algonquin. Si a,b,c > 0 et a < b + c, montrer que

6. Proposed by John Thomas, University of Ottawa. What is the largest non-trivial subgroup of the group of permutations on n elements?

74. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa. Prove that if the sides a,b,c of a triangle satisfy a2 + b2 = kc2, then k > 12.

75. Proposed by R. Duff Butterill, Ottawa Board of Education.

M is the midpoint of chord AB of the circle with centre C shown in the figure. Prove that RS > MN.

RS 79. Proposed by John Thomas, University of Ottawa.

84. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa. Prove that for any positive integer n

98. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa. Prove that, if 0 < a < b, then ln b2

100. Proposed by Leo Sauve, College Algonquin. Soit f une fonction numerique continue et non negative pour tout x ≥ 0. On suppose qu’il existe un nombre reel a > 0 tel que, pout tout x > 0,

Montrer que la fonction f est nulle.

106. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa. Prove that, for any quadrilateral with sides a,b,c,d,

108. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa. Prove that, for all integers n ≥ 2,

110. Proposed by H. G. Dworschak, Algonquin College.

(a) Let AB and PR be two chords of a circle intersecting at Q. If A, B, and P are kept fixed, characterize geometrically the position of R for which the length of QR is maximal. (See figure). (b) Give a Euclidean construction for the point R which maximizes the length of QR, or show that no such construction is possible.

115. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa. Prove the following inequality of Huygens:

119. Proposed by John A. Tierney, United States Naval Academy. A line through the first quadrant point (a,b) forms a right triangle with the positive coordinate axes. Find analytically the minimum perimeter of the triangle.

120. Proposed by John A. Tierney, United States Naval Academy. Given a point P inside an arbitrary angle, give a Euclidean construction of the line through P that determines with the sides of the angle a triangle (a) of minimum area; (b) of minimum perimeter.

135. Proposed by Steven R. Conrad, Benjamin N. Cardozo H. S., Bayside, N. Y. How many 3×5 rectangular pieces of cardboard can be cut from a 17×22 rectangular piece of cardboard so that the amount of waste is a minimum?

145. Proposed by Walter Bluger, Department of National Health and Welfare. A pentagram is a set of 10 points consisting of the vertices and the intersections of the diagonals of a regular pentagon with an integer assigned to each point. The pentagram is said to be magic if the sums of all sets of 4 collinear points are equal. Construct a magic pentagram with the smallest possible positive primes.

150. Proposed by Kenneth S. Williams, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario.

If ⌊x⌋ denotes the greatest integer ≤ x, it is trivially true that⌊( 3

and it seems to be a hard conjecture (see G. H. Hardy & E. M. Wright, An Introduction to the

Theory of Numbers, 4th edition, Oxford University Press 1960, p. 337, condition (f)) that⌊( 3

Can one find a function f(k) such that⌊( 3 with f(k) between 3k−2k

160. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa.

Find the integral part of 109∑

This problem is taken from the list submitted for the 1975 Canadian Mathematics Olympiad (but not used on the actual exam).

162. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa.

, show that

This problem is taken from the list submitted for the 1975 Canadian Mathematics Olympiad (but not used on the actual exam).

165. Proposed by Dan Eustice, The Ohio State University. Prove that, for each choice of n points in the plane (at least two distinct), there exists a point on the unit circle such that the product of the distances from the point to the chosen points is greater than one.

167. Proposed by Leo Sauve, Algonquin College. The first half of the Snellius-Huygens double inequality

was proved in Problem 115. Prove the second half in a way that could have been understood before the invention of calculus.

173. Proposed by Dan Eustice, The Ohio State University. For each choice of n points on the unit circle (n ≥ 2), there exists a point on the unit circle such that the product of the distances to the chosen points is greater than or equal to 2. Moreover, the product is 2 if and only if the n points are the vertices of a regular polygon.

179. Proposed by Steven R. Conrad, Benjamin N. Cardozo H. S., Bayside, N. Y. The equation 5x+7y = c has exactly three solutions (x,y) in positive integers. Find the largest possible value of c.

207. Proposed by Ross Honsberger, University of Waterloo.

Prove that 2r+5 r+2 is always a better approximation of √ 5 than r.

219. Proposed by R. Robinson Rowe, Sacramento, California. Find the least integer N which satisfies

223. Proposed by Steven R. Conrad, Benjamin N. Cardozo H. S., Bayside, N. Y. Without using any table which lists Pythagorean triples, find the smallest integer which can represent the area of two noncongruent primitive Pythagorean triangles.

229. Proposed by Kenneth M. Wilke, Topeka, Kansas. On an examination, one question asked for the largest angle of the triangle with sides 21, 41, and 50. A student obtained the correct answer as follows: Let C denote the desired angle; then

which is correct. Find the triangle of least area having integral sides and possessing this property.

230. Proposed by R. Robinson Rowe, Sacramento, California. Find the least integer N which satisfies

N = ama+nb = bmb+na with m and n positive and 1 < a < b. (This generalizes Problem 219.)

247⋆. Proposed by Kenneth S. Williams, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario. On page 215 of Analytic Inequalities by D. S. Mitrinovic, the following inequality is given: if 0 < b ≤ a then

Can this be generalized to the following form: if 0 < a1 ≤ a2 ≤ · ≤ an thenk where k is a constant?

280. Proposed by L. F. Meyers, The Ohio State University. A jukebox has N buttons. (a) If the set of N buttons is subdivided into disjoint subsets, and a customer is required to press exactly one button from each subset in order to make a selection, what is the distribution of buttons which gives the maximum possible number of different selections? (b) What choice of n will allow the greatest number of selections if a customer, in making a selection, may press any n distinct buttons out of the N? How many selections are possible then? (Many jukeboxes have 30 buttons, subdivided into 20 and 10. The answer to part (a) would then be 200 selections.)

282. Proposed by Erwin Just and Sidney Penner, Bronx Community College. On a 6×6 board we place 3×1 trominoes (each tromino covering exactly three unit squares of the board) until no more trominoes can be accommodated. What is the maximum number of squares that can be left vecant?

289. Proposed by L. F. Meyers, The Ohio State University. Derive the laws of reflection and refraction from the principle of least time without use of calculus or its equivalent. Specifically, let L be a straight line, and let A and B be points not on L. Let the speed of light on the side of L on which A lies be c1, and let the speed of light on the other side of L be c2. Characterize the points C on L for which the time taken for the route ACB is smallest, if

(a) A and B are on the same side of L (reflection); (b) A and B are on opposite sides of L (refraction).

295. Proposed by Basil C. Rennie, James Cook University of North Queensland, Australia. If 0 < b ≤ a, prove that

303. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa. Huygens’ inequality 2sinα+tanα ≥ 3α was proved in Problem 115. Prove the following hyperbolic analogue:

304. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa. Prove the following inequality:

lnx

306. Proposed by Irwin Kaufman, South Shore H. S., Brooklyn, N. Y. Solve the following inequality, which was given to me by a student:

sinxsin3x > 1

307. Proposed by Steven R. Conrad, Benjamin N. Cardozo H. S., Bayside, N. Y. It was shown in Problem 153 that the equation ab = a + b has only one solution in positive integers, namely (a,b) = (2,2). Find the least and greatest values of x (or y) such that xy = nx+ny, if n, x, y are all positive integers.

310. Proposed by Jack Garfunkel, Forest Hills H. S., Flushing, N. Y. Prove that

When is equality attained?

318. Proposed by C. A. Davis in James Cook Mathematical Notes No. 12 (Oct. 1977), p. 6. Given any triangle ABC, thinking of it as in the complex plane, two points L and N may be defined as the stationary values of a cubic that vanishes at the vertices A, B, and C. Prove that L and N are the foci of the ellipse that touches the sides of the triangle at their midpoints, which is the inscribed ellipse of maximal area.

323. Proposed by Jack Garfunkel, Forest Hills H. S., Flushing, N. Y., and Murray S. Klamkin, University of Alberta. If xyz = (1 − x)(1 − y)(1 − z) where 0 ≤ x,y,z ≤ 1, show that

344. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa. Given is a set S of n positive numbers. With each nonempty subset P of S, we associate the number σ(P) = sum of all its elements.

Show that the set {σ(P)|P ⊆ S} can be partitioned into n subsets such that in each subset the ratio of the largest element to the smallest is at most 2.

347. Proposed by Murray S. Klamkin, University of Alberta.

Determine the maximum value of3 √

in the interval −1 ≤ x ≤ 1.

358. Proposed by Murray S. Klamkin, University of Alberta. Determine the maximum of x2y, subject to the constraints

362. Proposed by Kenneth S. Williams, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario. In Crux 247 [1977: 131; 1978: 23, 37] the following inequality is proved:

Prove that the constant 1 2n2 is best possible.

367⋆. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa. (a) A closed polygonal curve lies on the surface of a cube with edge of length 1. If the curve intersects every face of the cube, show that the length of the curve is at least 3√ 2.

(b) Formulate and prove similar theorems about (i) a rectangular parallelepiped, (i) a regular tetrahedron.

375. Proposed by Murray S. Klamkin, University of Alberta. A convex n-gon P of cardboard is such that if lines are drawn parallel to all the sides at distances x from them so as to form within P another polygon P′, then P′ is similar to P. Now

to form an open polygonal box of base A′1A′2 | A′n and of height x. Determine the maximum |

let the corresponding consecutive vertices of P and P′ be A1,A2,...,An and A′1,A′2,...,A′n, respectively. From A′2, perpendiculars A′2B1, A′2B2 are drawn to A1A2, A2A3, respectively, and the quadrilateral A′2B1A2B2 is cut away. Then quadrilaterals formed in a similar way are cut away from all the other corners. The remainder is folded along A′1A′2,A′2A′3,...,A′nA′1 so as volume of the box and the corresponding value of x.

394. Proposed by Harry D. Ruderman, Hunter College Campus School, New York. A wine glass has the shape of an isosceles trapezoid rotated about its axis of symmetry. If R, r, and h are the measures of the larger radius, smaller radius, and altitude of the trapezoid, find r : R : h for the most economical dimensions.

395⋆. Proposed by Kenneth S. Williams, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario. In Crux 247 [1977: 131; 1978: 23, 37] the following inequality is proved:

where A (resp. G) is the arithmetic (resp. geometric) mean of a1,...,an. This is a refinement of the familiar inequality A ≥ G. If H denotes the harmonic mean of a1,...,an, that is,

find the corresponding refinement of the familiar inequality G ≥ H.

397. Proposed by Jack Garfunkel, Forest Hills H. S., Flushing, N. Y. Given is △ABC with incenter I. Lines AI, BI, CI are drawn to meet the incircle (I) for the first time in D, E, F, respectively. Prove that

is not less than the perimeter of the triangle of maximum perimeter that can be inscribed in circle (I).

402. Proposed by the late R. Robinson Rowe, Sacramento, California. An army with an initial strength of A men is exactly decimeted each day of a 5-day battle and reinforced each night wirh R men from the reserve pool of P men, winding up on the morning of the 6th day with 60 % of its initial strength. At least how large must the initial strength have been if (a) R was a constant number each day; (b) R was exactly half the men available in the dwindling pool?

404. Proposed by Andy Liu, University of Alberta. Let A be a set of n distinct positive numbers. Prove that

(a) the number of distinct sums of subsets of A is at least 12n(n + 1) + 1;

(b) the number of distinct subsets of A with equal sum to half the sum of A is at most 2n n+1.

405. Proposed by Viktors Linis, University of Ottawa. A circle of radius 16 contains 650 points. Prove that there exists an annulus of inner radius 2 and outer radius 3 which contains at least 10 of the given points.

413. Proposed by G. C. Giri, Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. If a,b,c > 0, prove that

417. Proposed by John A. Tierney, U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. It is easy to guess from the graph of the folium os Descartes, that the point of maximum curvature is (

. Prove it.

423. Proposed by Jack Garfunkel, Forest Hills H. S., Flushing, N. Y.

In a triangle ABC whose circumcircle has unit diameter, let ma and ta denote the lengths of the median and the internal angle bisector to side a, respectively. Prove that

cos

427. Proposed by G. P. Henderson, Campbellcroft, Ontario. A corridor of width a intersects a corridor of width b to form an “L”. A rectangular plate is to be taken along one corridor, around the corner and along the other corridor with the plate being kept in a horizontal plane. Among all the plates for which this is possible, find those of maximum area.

429. Proposed by M. S. Klamkin and A. Liu, both from the University of Alberta. On a 2n×2n board we place n×1 polyominoes (each covering exactly n unit squares of the board) until no more n×1 polyominoes can be accomodated. What is the number of squares that can be left vacant? This problem generalizes Crux 282 [1978: 114].

(Parte **1** de 6)