(Parte 1 de 5)

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Text 1: The Rise of the Tycoon

America once idealized the businessman who amassed a vast financial empire – the business tycoon. His epoch was the second half of the 19th century. It began with the spread of the railroad networks in the 1850s, and included the growth of northern industry in the 1860s, and the rise of investment banking in the 1870s.

Throughout this period, business interests had significant influence over government. 5

The great tycoons were fierce competitors, single-minded in their pursuit of financial success and power. Some of the giants were Jay Gould, J. P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller and Henry Ford. Some of these men were honest according to business standards of their day; others used force, bribery and guile to achieve their wealth and power. 10

The business spirit was not indigenous to America; it grew from the soil of

European capitalism. By the time of the American Revolution, businessmen were operating in Italy, Holland, and England. Very early in American history there were industrialists, mostly in New England and along the northeastern seaboard. They were shipbuilders, manufacturers, land speculators, and bankers. Only a few, 15 however, amassed large fortunes.

J. Pierpont Morgan, perhaps the most flamboyant of the entrepreneurs, operated on a scale of magnificence. He displayed aggressiveness and grandeur in his private and business life. He and his companions gambled, sailed yachts, gave lavish parties, built palatial homes, and bought the art treasures of Europe. 20

In contrast, such men as John D. Rockefeller and Henry Ford demonstrated taut Puritan qualities. They retained their small-town values and life styles. As churchgoers, they felt a sense of responsibility to others. They demonstrated that personal virtues could bring success; theirs was the gospel of work and thrift. Later their heirs would establish the largest philanthropic foundations in America. 25

While many European intellectuals saw business and moneymaking as degrading, Americans generally embraced it with enthusiasm. They enjoyed the risk and excitement of business enterprise, as well as the potential rewards of power and acclaim.

By the time of the Great Depression in the 1930s, however, the image of the 30 entrepreneur as an American ideal had lost much of its luster. The crucial change came with the rise of corporation. Few business barons remained. They were replaced by "technocrats" as the heads of corporations. These executives, expert in every phase of corporate activity, became the indispensable cogs in the industrial machine. The high-salaried manager replaced the swaggering tycoon. 35

The big business leaders today are often involved in many areas of public life.

They not only direct the fate of corporations, they also serve on boards in their community and as university trustees. The new corporate leaders fly to Washington to confer with government officials on national policy. They are concerned about the state of the national economy and America’s relationship with other nations. (From 40 An Outline of American Economy, ps.1/12, USIA)

CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto-2-

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Procure responder as questões de reading comprehension como se elas fossem questões da sua prova. Utilize as técnicas e estratégias já abordadas.

Choose the best option:

1. All these options can be used to refer to the great Tycoons, except a) they were fierce competitors. b) single-mindedly they pursued wealth and power. c) they all resorted to bribery and guile to achieve power. d) according to business standards of their day some were honest.

2. The image of the tycoons lost much of its luster by the time

a) the Great Depression which devastated America. b) corporate activity grew more intense. c) high-salaried experts were employed. d) industrial machines had to be replaced.

3. After reading the text you can affirm that

a) Europeans made a fortune by selling the Americans their art treasures. b) Americans and Europeans enjoyed the risk of business enterprise. c) the excitement of business enterprise fascinated Europeans. d) Americans and European intellectuals regarded business differently.

4. New England industrialists early on in American history

a) were mainly shipbuilders, manufacturers, land speculators and bankers. b) were highly influenced by Italians, Dutch and British businessmen. c) hardly ever amassed large fortunes. d) did not pursue financial power so hard as the great tycoons.

5. It can be inferred from the passage that

a) were it not for the tycoons there would never be philanthropic foundations in America today. b) the tycoons’ self-centered business led to their eventual replacement. c) big business leaders nowadays have as much influence over government as the great tycoons did in the past. d) heads of corporate activity do not enjoy the risk of business enterprise.

6. The word while (L-26) as a discourse marker indicates a) contrast. b) time. c) emphasis. d) consequence.

CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto-3-

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America, idealized, vast, financial, empire

I. Do texto 1 retire 20 true cognates, as palavras transparentes, cuja semelhança com nosso português é evidente. Já comecei para você: _

I - Verifique quantas vezes ‘the little word of’ a quem demos tanta importância antes aparece no texto? _

I - Por ser uma narrativa histórica o past simple predomina no texto 1. Só no primeiro parágrafo encontrei: idealized, amassed, was, began, included, had.

encontra no trecho que vai de J. Pierpont Morgan, perhapsaté rewards of power

Escreva nas linhas a seguir os exemplos de past simple que você and acclaim (L-17/29) _

IV -- Retorne à aula 1 e veja que reading strategies você poderia ter usado para responder cada uma das questões de reading comprehension.

Questão 1
Questão 2
Questão 3
Questão 4
Questão 5

Questão 6 _

CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto-4-

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I - “Throughout this period, business interests had significant influence over government.” (L-5)

A function word ‘throughout’ (=in every part of, all through) é uma preposição. No fragmento em negrito é: durante todo este período.

I - “In contrast, such men as John D. Rockefeller and Henry Ford demonstrated taut Puritan qualities.” (L-21/2)

Como discourse marker, ‘in contrast (=conversely) que indica contraste. A tradução do fragmento em negrito é: ao contrário, inversamente.

Veja se consegue traduzir os seguintes fragmentos do texto 1. Não use dicionário. No final da aula apresento a minha tradução para confronto.

1. amassed large fortunes _

2. gave lavish parties _

3. were fierce competitors _

4. bought art treasures _

5. retained small-town values _

6. embraced moneymaking with enthusiasm _

7. enjoyed the risk of business enterprise _

8. had lost much of its luster

9. came with the rise of corporations _

10. became the indispensable cogs in the industrial machine _

1. direct the fate of corporations _

(Parte 1 de 5)