(Parte 1 de 4)

-1-

w.pontodosconcursos.com.br 1 AULA 6 GUESSING MEANING WITH MODALS

Social Security Announces 4.1 Percent Benefit Increase for 2006

Monthly Social Security and Supplemental Security Income benefits for more than 52 million Americans will increase 4.1 percent in 2006, the Social Security Administration announced today.

Social Security and Supplemental Security Income benefits increase automatically each year based on the rise in the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W), from the third quarter of the prior year to the corresponding period of the current year. This year’s increase in the CPI-W was 4.1 percent.

The 4.1 percent Cost-of-Living Adjustment (COLA) will begin with benefits that more than 48 million Social Security beneficiaries receive in January 2006. Increased payments to 7 million Supplemental Security Income beneficiaries will begin on December 30.

Some other changes that take effect in January of each year are based on the increase in average wages. Based on that increase, the maximum amount of earnings subject to the Social Security tax (taxable maximum) will increase to $94,200 from $90,0. Of the estimated 161 million workers who will pay Social Security taxes in 2006, about 1.3 million will pay higher taxes as a result of the increase in the taxable maximum in 2006.

It is important to note that no one’s Social Security benefit will decrease as a result of the 2006 Medicare Part B premium increase, announced last month. By law, the Part B premium increase cannot be larger than a beneficiary’s Cost-of-Living Adjustment (COLA) increase. (Excerpt from News Release w.ssa.gov – o site oficial do governo dos EUA)

CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto-2-

w.pontodosconcursos.com.br 2

EXPLOITATION OF TEXT 1

Copie do texto inicial três exemplos de construções no futuro: _

Translate the following fragments from text 1:

Social Security Benefit increase Consumer Price Index Urban Wage Earners Clerical Workers Cost-of-Living Adjustment average wages taxable maximum Social Security taxes premium increase

Take a look at a US Social Security card. (Na cultura Americana este cartão é tão importante quanto o nosso CIC com o nosso CPF.

From Wikipedia – the free encyclopedia

CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto-3-

w.pontodosconcursos.com.br 3

From Text 1: Desta vez não vou apresentar nenhum novo sufixo. Instead, vou pedir que você localize no texto 1 o maior número de palavras com formação sufixal que você puder:

About Text 1: On Social Security

1. () You can affirm that Social Security and Supplemental Security Income

Write (T) for true or (F) for false: benefits for many citizens in the US will tumble in 2006.

2. ( ) It is the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical

Workers (CPI-W) that could determine how much Social Security and Supplemental Security Income benefits vary every year.

3. () Over 48 million Social Security beneficiaries might benefit from Cost-

of-Living Adjustment as of January 2006.

4. () Approximately 7% of the workers will pay higher Social Security taxes

in 2006.

5. ( ) 2006 Medicare Part B premium increase may not be larger than a beneficiary’s Cost-of-Living Adjustment increase.

CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto-4-

w.pontodosconcursos.com.br 4

Os principais modal verbs são can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, have to, ought to. São verbos auxiliares colocados diante do verbo principal para emprestam nuances de sentido. Podem indicar permissão, possibilidade, necessidade, obrigação, etc.

Modal verbs apresentam certas peculiaridades:

a) não se acrescenta ‘s’ ou ‘es a terceira pessoa do singular:

Ex.: She can swim. Ela sabe nadar.

He can speak Italian. Ele sabe falar italiano.

. Deve chegar a qualquer momento

It should arrive any minute now.

quase-modais como ‘ought to’, used to)

b) modal verbs não são seguidos de to + infinitive (com exceção dos

Ex.: They should stay home. Elas devem ficar em casa.

But: She ought to study more. Ela deve estudar mais.

c) para formar-se a negativa coloca-se ‘not’ logo após o modal verb; para formar perguntas inverte-se o modal verb com o sujeito.

Exs.: You cannot enter that area. Você não pode entrar naquela área.

Would you like to visit the farm? Você gostaria de visitar a fazenda? d) os chamados ‘perfect modals’ são assim formados: modal verb + have (never has or had) + past participle of principal verb.

Exs.: Sheila kept me waiting. She should have called me up much earlier. Sheila me deixou esperando. Devia ter-me telefonado muito antes.

I might have stayed longer if you had invited me. Podia ter ficado mais tempo se você tivesse me convidado.

They may have left for the airport already. Eles já devem ter ido pro aeroporto.

CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto-5-

w.pontodosconcursos.com.br 5

From Text 1 “…the Part B premium increase cannot be larger than a beneficiary’s Cost-of- Living Adjustment increase” (L-21/2)

Os modal verbs permitem que você utilize uma outra reading strategy, qual seja, a de buscar o significado de trechos nos textos onde eles aparecem indicando, como já dissemos, permission, possbility, probability, necessity, obligation, etc.

No exemplo do texto 1 o aumento dos prêmios não pode ser maior do que o ajuste do índice do custo de vida. Rapidamente, vamos analisar alguns exemplos com os verbos can / could:

O chefe da Ms. Lark lhe disse: - Você pode sair agora

Ms. Lark’s boss said to her: ‘You can leave now.” (ou seja, ele lhe deu permissão)

Se tivesse sido usado o verbo may, por exemplo, ficaria muito mais formal. Agora, se tivesse sido usado o verbo must. Mudaria tudo de figura.

Ms. Lark’s boss told her: ‘You must leave now.” O chefe da Ms. Lark lhe disse: - Você tem que sair agora.

(ou seja, por algum motivo ela tem que sair; está obrigada a fazê-lo agora)

Mrs. Sorensen is busy now, but she can see you tomorrow afternoon. A Sra Sorensen está ocupada agora, mas poderá vê-lo amanhã à tarde.

(claramente o verbo can está indicando possibilidade no futuro aqui)

It can’t / couldn’t have been John you saw at the station, he’s been here with us all the time.

(Parte 1 de 4)

Comentários