(Parte 1 de 6)

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w.pontodosconcursos.com.br AULA 10 LOOKING BACK ON ESSENTIALS

Text 1: The International Monetary Fund

Most of the world’s leading nations sent representatives to a conference at

Bretton Woods, on Dec 27, 1945. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was established then, and a system of “pegged” or fixed exchange rates was devised.

The IMF was established mainly to promote international cooperation on monetary issues and to facilitate governments with financial resources to correct 5 payments’ imbalances.

The IMF is a specialized agency of the UN, with a board of governors drawn from every member country, 2 executive directors and a managing director. It had 170 members (1993). Its headquarters is in Washington D.C.

The IMF extends short-term credit to nations unable to meet their balance-of-10 payments debts by conventional means, usually increased exports and long-term loans. The IMF expects to be paid back and can enter into consultations with chronic debtor-nations in order to advise them on how best to repay their debts. The IMF will often ask these nations to take steps to decrease their imports or perhaps depreciate their currencies. 15

The conference at Bretton Woods also provided for fixed exchange rates between nations, but this part of the agreement has since been abandoned. In 1971, with the American trade deficit continuing to grow, the US proposed that Germany and Japan, both with favorable balances of payment, appreciate their currencies.

These nations were reluctant to act, and when they did, it was too little too late. The 20 fixed value of the dollar was abandoned and allowed to “float;” that is, to fluctuate in comparison to other currencies - with supply and demand determining the value. In the US, prices and wages were frozen for a time, and a 10% surcharge was imposed on imports. The purpose was to persuade Europe and Japan to reduce trade barriers against American products. 25

A world conference was called at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington,

D.C., to try and revive the old system. The dollar was officially devalued, and the Japanese yen and German mark were raised in value. When the U.S. trade position still did not improve enough in 1972, the fall of the dollar was made official, and the world reverted to flexible exchange rates. 30

Some economists argue that more potent methods must be used to correct long-term and deep-seated trade imbalances. Two of the more popular ideas are the use of flexible exchange rates and special drawing rights. Flexible exchange rates would mark a compromise between the days of rigid (usually outdated) exchange rates and today’s free-floating situation where supply and demand can cause 35 extreme fluctuations in a currency’s value. Flexible exchange rates would allow a currency to fluctuate up to a certain prescribed level, perhaps 1% or 2% a year.

Special drawing rights are what is known as “paper gold.” Limited supplies of gold relative to the world money supply, along with the fall in value of the dollar, have led to the need to find an alternative. The IMF has responded by agreeing to create 40 paper gold and distribute it to member nations in proportion to the amount of their subscription. (From “An Outline of American Economy’, ps.132/133, USIA)

CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto-2-

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Pre-testing Vocabulary

Faça o skimming do texto e correlacione os fragmentos do texto em A com sua tradução em B, impregnados de “economês” já que estamos falando do International Monetary Fund (IMF), that is, FMI. Como sempre as transparent words, os true cognates, vão ajudá-lo nessa tarefa:

1. “pegged” exchange rates a. () saldar suas dívidas
3. repay their debts c. () corrigir desequilíbrios nos pags.
4. decrease their imports d. () desvalorizar suas moedas
5. depreciate their currencies e. () diminuir suas importações
6. prices and wages were frozen f. () direitos especiais de saque
7. deep-seated trade imbalances g. () preços e salários foram congelados
8. special drawing rights h. () desequilíbrios comerciais sérios

A B 2. correct payments’ imbalances b. ( ) taxas de câmbio fixas

ANALYSIS OF TEXT 1

1. Em virtude de se tratar de um relato histórico o verb tense predominante é o past simple. Escreva pelo menos cinco exemplos dele nas linhas abaixo: _

2. Escreva um exemplo retirado do text 1 nos verb tenses below:

Present simple _ Present perfect _ Future Simple _

3. Escreva cinco exemplos de construções na passive voice encontradas no text 1: _

CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto-3-
4. Atenção para o significado das palavras terminadas eming. Indique como

w.pontodosconcursos.com.br estão sendo usadas as formas em negrito e traduza os fragmentos do texto.

a) the world’s leading nations (L-1) _ b) and a managing director (L-9) _ c) the American trade deficit continuing to grow (L-19) _ d) supply and demand determining the value (L-23) _ e) and special drawing rights (L-34) _ f) today’s free-floating situation (L-36) _ g) The IMF has responded by agreeing (L-42) _

5. Atenção para o significado das palavras terminadas emed. Indique como

estão sendo usadas as formas em negrito e traduza os fragmentos do texto a) a system of fixed exchange rates (L-3) _ b) The IMF is a specialized agency (L-8) _ c) usually increased exports (L-12) _ d) at Bretton Woods also provided for (L-17) _ e) this part of the agreement has since been abandoned (L-18) _ f) Japanese yen and German mark were raised in value (L-29) _ g) fluctuate up to a certain prescribed level (L-38) _

CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto-4-

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6. Escreva nas linhas abaixo o que os seguintes modal verbs estão indicando nos fragmentos do text 1 can (L-13) _ must (L-32) _ would (L-35) _ can (L-36) _ 7. Escreva nas linhas abaixo A que se referem os pronomes no text 1 it (L- 9) _ its (L- 10) _ their (L- 20) _ their (L- 42) _

Basta olhar com atenção e lá estão os exemplos de palavras formadas com prefixes e suffixes que vimos estudando. Escolho alguns exemplos com o sufixo –OR para revisão:

Governor (= aquele/a que governa, governador / a) Todos os estados americanos têm governors, com exceção é claro da Califórnia que, no momento, tem um ‘governator’. No seguinte fragmento do texto em board of governors é melhor entendermos como junta diretora, grupo de diretores, diretoria. “with a board of governors drawn from every member country (L-7) (= com um quadro de diretores retirado de cada país membro)

Director(s) (=aquele que dirige, diretor) “2 executive directors and a managing director…” (L-8) (= 2 diretores e um diretor gerente)

Debtor (= aquele/a que deve, devedor/a)

“enter into consultations with chronic debtor-nations..” (L-12/13) (= entabular consultas com países devedores inveterados)

CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto-5-

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Poderíamos, com certeza, pinçar vários outros exemplos do texto de formação prefixal e sufixal igualmente elucidativos, mas, por enquanto, vamos ficar com o quadro seguinte. Veja se consegue fazer este exercício sem o auxílio de um dictionary; se de todo não for possível, recorra a um.

Escreva nas quadriculas as palavras que estão faltando pertencentes às respectivas word families:

Verb Noun Adjective adverb advise _ advisable advisably finance finance financial _ correct _ corrected correctly _ officialization officialized officially increase increase increasing _ impose _ imposed imposingly compare comparison t _ comparably persuade persuasion _ persuasively know _ unknown knowingly _ specialization special specially

Sugeri que você estudasse blocos de palavras e não só palavras soltas. É o estudo das collocations e combinations não valendo a pena, aqui, ficar preso à distinção entre elas. Escolhi exemplos do texto do tipo: verb + noun / adj. + noun.

Coloque os verbos diante das expressões correspondentes, depois confira no texto como o autor as combinou.

1international cooperation
2steps
3short-term credit
4their currencies
5trade barriers
6trade imbalances
7determining the value

extends - promote - take - depreciate - determine - reduce - freeze - correct 8. _ freeze wages and prices

CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto-6-

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From text 1: “Some economists argue that more potent methods must be used to correct long-term and deep-seated trade imbalances. Two of the more popular ideas are the use of flexible exchange rates and special drawing rights. (L-35)

Anteriormente revisamos superlatives. Desta vez vamos relembrar as comparative forms. As formas do comparativo e do superlativo dos adjetivos são importantes pois os examinadores podem perfeitamente jogar com as idéias de mais isso, menos aquilo, o mais alguma coisa, o menos alguma coisa - de maneira explicita ou não tão explícita nas diversas opções apresentadas numa questão de múltipla-escolha. Veja se tem o domínio das principais formações:

a. O sufixo ‘er’ é usado para formar o comparativo de superioridade de adjetivos ‘curtos’.

easy easier (than) mais fácil (que) clean cleaner (than) mais limpo/a (que) hot hotter (than) mais quente (que) old older (than) mais velho/a (que) b. Com adjetivos longos’ usa-se more+adj.+than para formar o comparativo de supeiroridade e less+adj.+than para formar o compartaivo de inferioridade.

more (less) difficult than mais (menos) difícil (que) more (less) complicated than mais (menos) complicado/a que) more (less) economical than mais (menos) econômico/a (que)

goodbetter (than) melhor (que)
badworse (than) pior (que)
littleless( than ) menos (que)

c. Algumas formas irregulares: much(many) more (than) mais (que)

CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto-7-

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From text 1: “would mark a compromise” (L-35)

No exemplo extraído do text 1, ‘compromise’ não significa compormisso, e sim, acordo. O que faz dele um falso amigo para Brazilian students.

Complete the sentences with one of the FALSE COGNATES from the box then translate the sentences.

(Parte 1 de 6)

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