Module 3

Navigation is the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.

It is also the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used by navigators to perform navigation tasks.

All navigational techniques involve locating the navigator's position compared to known locations or patterns.

Basic Concepts

Latitude- The latitude of a place on the Earth's surface is the angular distance north or south of the equator.

Longitude- Similar to latitude, the longitude of a place on the Earth's surface is the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian or Greenwich meridian.

Most modern navigation relies primarily on positions determined electronically by receivers collecting information from satellites.

Most other modern techniques rely on crossing lines of position or LOP. A line of position can refer to two different things: a line on a chart and a line between the observer and an object in real life. A bearing is a measure of the direction to an object. If the navigator measures the direction in real life, the angle can then be drawn on a nautical chart and the navigator will be on that line on the chart.

• In addition to bearings, navigators also often measure distances to objects On the chart, a distance produces a circle or arc of position. Circles, arcs, and hyperbolae of positions are often referred to as lines of position.

• If the navigator draws two lines of position, and they intersect he must be at that position. A fix is the intersection of two or more LOPs.

• If only one line of position is available, this may be evaluated against the dead reckoning position to establish an estimated position.

• Lines (or circles) of position can be derived from a variety of sources:

• celestial observation (a short segment of the circle of equal altitude, but generally represented as a line),
• terrestrial range (natural or man made) when two charted points are observed to be in line with each other,
• compass bearing to a charted object,
• radar range to a charted object,
• on certain coastlines, a depth sounding from echo sounder or hand lead line.

There are some methods seldom used today such as "dipping a light" to calculate the geographic range from observer to a lighthouse

Communication

Ship communication equipment comprises facilities and equipment providing two-way communication both aboard and between the ship and the outer world (shore, port, other ships and carrier vehicles, etc). Communication equipment serves to receive and transmit alarm, emergency signals, navigation warnings, meteorological and hydrological forecasts, medical information and service and private messages.

Such simplest devices as megaphone, semaphore, searchlight, as well as modern global maritime distress and safety system (GMDSS), satellite communication systems and command broadcast apparatus can be used as the ship communication equipment.

GMDSS

Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS)

GMDSS based on International Convention for the safety of life at sea (SOLAS) was brought into service more than ten years ago. The system ensured to consolidate marine ships’ communication, satellites and coast stations. Earlier the signal of the injured vessel was received by ships within a radius of less 200 marine miles, and today, with GMDSS, emergency report can be receive in any point of the World Ocean. Signalling simplicity is another advantage of GMDSS. To do so, you need not radio operator skills, just press one of the buttons located not only in the radio cabin but at several points of the ship.

GMDSS comprises equipment, infrastructure as well as code of engineering controls and rules. GMDSS requirement cover international route passenger and cargo ships with deadweight over 300 tons, and by decision of the country of registration, non-conventional vessels (coasters, fishing ships, etc.).

Main Components of GMDSS:

• INMARSAT satellite network including radio-transmitting sets;

• COSPAS-SARSAT satellite network including emergency beacons;

• Digital Selective Call (DCS) ground communication systems;

• NAVTEX system;

INMARSAT

INMARSAT is the basic system of earth coverage satellite communication. It comprises geostationary satellites, coast earth stations and user stations. For signal transmission, special onboard radio transmitters (terminals) are used. Depending on the model, terminals can be used for connection with mobile telephones, SMS and MMS sending and for internet access (including broadband access). COSPAS-SARSAT is designed for determination of geographical coordinates and allegiance of ships in distress. It comprises several low-earth-orbit and geostationary satellites, network of data receiving and processing stations, network of coordinating centers and emergency beacons. The last are 406 and 025 MHz onboard radio transmitters

Digital Selective Call (DCS)

Digital Selective Call (DCS) ground communication systems use transmitters initially calling onboard and coastal stations with the purpose of reporting emergency situation, confirming and broadcasting the call, informing message transmission, and communicating via active channel. It is necessary to remember that DSC is used just for the initial call. The subsequent communication is maintained via radiophone, telex or other available communication link. DSC operates in MF, HF and USB bands.

NAVTEX

NAVTEX is another international automated reporting system. It is used by navigators in coastal areas for transmission of navigation warnings and meteorological information printed in English. It operates in on a MW frequency of 490 and 518 KHz (in the area of Suez Canal 4209.5 KHz is also used). This system requires installation of onboard receivers.

SART

SART emergency radar transponder helps determine ship location via signal transmission to radiolocation stations. This manual device operates at 9 GHz, and covers territory within a radius of 8 marine miles. In accordance with SOLAS requirements, at least one radar beacon transponder is to be installed at ships with gross capacity up to 500 tons, and at least 2 transponders, if gross capacity is over 500 tons.

Finally, communication system diagnostic devices (testers) are the separate range of GMDSS products.

AIS

The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is an automated tracking system used on ships and by Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) for identifying and locating Vessels by electronically exchanging data with other nearby ships and VTS stations. AIS information supplements marine radar, which continues to be the primary method of collision avoidance for water transport.

GMDSS is designed for providing communication between the vessel and the outer world. Public address or command translation systems are used for onboard annunciation. Via these systems, the crew and passengers can be informed on emergency and critical situations as well as informational messages can be transmitted.

Command broadcast apparatus is to meet SOLAS command broadcast facility requirements, and have enhanced moistness, corrosion and strain tolerance. It is desirable to integrate CBA with other onboard security systems (fire detection, alarm signal, blast signal management systems, etc).

Generally, CBA comprises several remote control panels, posts of two-way public address system, microphones, loud-speakers, and sound reproducing systems.

Satellite Communication Systems

Satellite Communication Systems

In addition to GMDSS, personal satellite systems providing two-way connection in any place of the world (Iridium, Globalstar, Turaya) were designed and are successfully operated.

These systems use their own low-earth-orbit satellites which ensures reducing delay of the sent or received signal, and significantly lower satellite phone weight and dimensions.

Personal satellite system telephones are manufactured by such well known companies as Motorola, Ericsson, Telit and Qualcomm. A number of supplying companies offers telephone leasing.

International Conventions

SOLAS

The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) is an international maritime safety treaty.

The SOLAS Convention in its successive forms is generally regarded as the most important of all international treaties concerning the safety of merchant ships.

SOLAS

History

The first version of the treaty was passed in 1914 in response to the sinking of the RMS Titanic. It prescribed numbers of lifeboats and other emergency equipment along with safety procedures, including continuous radio watches.

The intention had been to keep the convention up to date by periodic amendments, but the procedure to incorporate the amendments proved to be very slow: it could take several years for the amendments to be put into action since countries had to give notice of acceptance to IMO and there was a minimum threshold of countries and tonnage.

As a result, a complete new convention was adopted in 1974 which includes all the agreements and acceptant procedures. Even the Convention was updated and amended on numerous times, the Convention in force today is sometimes referred as SOLAS 1974, as amended.

Technical provisions

The main objective of the SOLAS Convention is to specify minimum standards for the construction, equipment and operation of ships, compatible with their safety. Flag States are responsible for ensuring that ships under their flag comply with its requirements, and a number of certificates are prescribed in the Convention as proof that this has been done.

Control provisions also allow Contracting Governments to inspect ships of other Contracting States if there are clear grounds for believing that the ship and its equipment do not substantially comply with the requirements of the Convention - this procedure is known as Port State Control. The current SOLAS Convention includes Articles setting out general obligations, amendment procedure and so on, followed by an Annex divided into 12 Chapters.

Amendments

1960 Version

The 1960 Convention — which was activated on 26 May 1965 — was the first major achievement for International Maritime Organization (IMO) after its creation and represented a massive advance in updating commercial shipping regulations and in staying up-to-date with new technology and procedures in the industry.

1974 Version

The 1974 version simplified the process for amending the treaty. A number of amendments have been adopted since. The latest Convention in 1974 included the "tacit acceptance" procedure whereby amendments enter into force by default unless nations file objections that meet a certain number or tonnage.

1980 Version

In particular, amendments in 1988 based on amendments of International Radio Regulations in 1987 replaced Morse code with the Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS) and came into force beginning 1 February 1992. An idea of the range of issues covered by the treaty can be gained from the list of sections (

STCW

The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (or STCW), 1978, as amended, sets qualification standards for masters, officers and watch personnel on seagoing merchant ships. STCW was adopted in 1978 by conference at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in London, and entered into force in 1984. The Convention was significantly amended in 1995.

The 1978 STCW Convention was the first to establish basic requirements on training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers on an international level. Previously the standards of training, certification and watchkeeping of officers and ratings were established by individual governments, usually without reference to practices in other countries. As a result standards and procedures varied widely, even though shipping is the most international of all industries.

The Convention prescribes minimum standards relating to training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers which countries are obliged to meet or exceed.

STCW

One especially important feature of the Convention is that it applies to ships of non-party States when visiting ports of States which are Parties to the Convention. Article X requires Parties to apply the control measures to ships of all flags to the extent necessary to ensure that no more favourable treatment is given to ships entitled to fly the flag of a State which is not a Party than is given to ships entitled to fly the flag of a State that is a Party.

The difficulties which could arise for ships of States which are not Parties to the Convention is one reason why the Convention has received such wide acceptance. By December 2000, the STCW Convention had 135 Parties, representing 97.53 per cent of world shipping tonnage.

STCW

When a code is written the department is listed first followed by the level.

For example: II/2 Deck / Management

Departments: Capacities II Deck III Engineering

NOTE: STCW Codes that begin with numbers other than II/ or III/ do not designate the capacity a mariner can serve in. They would generally indicate training that had been accomplished, i.e. certificates that show compliance with VI/1 indicate completion of Basic Safety Training because that is the regulation that is defined by chapter VI of the STCW Code.

STCW Levels: 1  Operational 2  Management 3  <500 tons or <3000kw or certain restricted certificates varying by administration 4  Ratings (can be an engineering, deck or general yacht rating)

STCW- Manila

Regulation II/1

Mandatory minimum requirements for certification of officers in charge of a navigational watch on ships of 500 gross tonnage or more

Every officer in charge of a navigational watch serving on a seagoing ship of 500 gross tonnage or more shall hold a certificate of competency.

Every candidate for certification shall:

• be not less than 18 years of age;

• have approved seagoing service of not less than 12 months (current version 6 months) as part of an approved training programme which includes onboard training that meets the requirements of section A-II/1 of the STCW Code and is documented in an approved training record book, or otherwise have approved seagoing service of not less than 36 months;

• have performed, during the required seagoing service, bridge watchkeeping duties under the supervision of the master or a qualified officer for a period of not less than six months;

• meet the applicable requirements of the regulations in chapter IV, as appropriate, for performing designated radio duties in accordance with the Radio Regulations;

• have completed approved education and training and meet the standard of competence specified in section A-II/1 of the STCW Code; and

• meet the standards of competence specified in section A-VI/1, paragraph 2,

section A-VI/2, paragraphs 1 to 4, section A-VI/3, paragraphs 1 to 4 and

section A-VI/4, paragraphs 1 to 3 of the STCW Code.

STCW

Regulation III/1

Mandatory minimum requirements for certification of officers in charge of an engineering watch in a manned engine-room or designated duty engineers in a periodically unmanned engine-room

1. Every officer in charge of an engineering watch in a manned engine-room or designated duty engineer officer in a periodically unmanned engine-room on a seagoing ship powered by main propulsion machinery of 750 kW propulsion power or more shall hold a certificate of competency.

2. Every candidate for certification shall:

.1 be not less than 18 years of age;

.2 have completed combined workshop skill training and an approved seagoing service of not less than 12 months as part of an approved training programme which includes onboard training that meets the requirements of section A-III/1 of the STCW Code and is documented in an approved training record book, or otherwise have completed combined workshop skill training and an approved seagoing service of not less than 36 months of which not less than 30 months will be seagoing service in the engine department;

3. Have performed, during the required seagoing service, engine-room watchkeeping duties under the supervision of the chief engineer officer or a qualified engineer officer for a period of not less than six months;

4. Have completed approved education and training and meet the standards of

competence specified in section A-III/1 of the STCW Code; and

5. Meet the standards of competence specified in section A-VI/1, paragraph 2,

section A-VI/2, paragraphs 1 to 4, section A-VI/3,