Teaching Techniques and Strategies in Foreign Languages

Teaching Techniques and Strategies in Foreign Languages

Teaching Techniques and Strategies in Foreign Languages

  • Presented by

  • Dr. G. Sakinah Abdur-Rashied,

  • Assistant Professor of

  • Modern Foreign Languages

  • Jackson State University

Teaching Techniques and Strategies in Foreign Languages

  • Best Practices in Foreign Language

  • Teaching and Learning

Methodologies in Foreign Language Teaching

  • Grammar-Translation Method (1890-1930)

  • Cognitive Approach (1940 – 1950)

  • Audio-Lingual Method (1950-1960)

  • The Direct Method (1970)

  • The Natural/Communicative Approach (1960 – 2000)

Methodologies Continued

  • Total Physical Response/TPR (1960– 2000)

  • The Silent Way (1960 – 2000)

  • Suggestopedia (1960 – 2000)

  • Community Language Learning/CLL: (1960 – 2000)

  • Total Immersion Technique

Grammar Cognitive Translation Approach

  • Use of dictionaries

  • Grammar explanations

  • Exercise drills

  • Little opportunity for second-language acquisition existed

Audio-Lingual Direct Method Method

  • Audio tapes and lab

  • Mimic native speakers

  • Dialogues recited and

  • Memorized

  • Repetition and

  • substitution

  • Transformation and

  • translation

Natural Total Communicative Physical Approach Response

  • Tracy Terrell and Stephen Krashen says

  • Acquisition-focused approach progresses through three stages:

  • Aural comprehension

  • Early speech production

  • Speech activities

The Silent Way

  • Introduced by Dr. Caleb

  • Gattegno of Alexandria,

  • Egypt

  • Production before meaning

  • Color-coded phonetics

  • No pronunciation model

  • Ability to draw students out orally

Suggestopedia Method

  • Based on the Bulgarian medical doctor, hypnotist, psychology professor Dr. Georgi Lozanov and his techniques of superlearning This

  • Avant-garde method is sub

  • conscious & subliminal

  • melodic and artistic

  • Background classical or

  • Baroque music

  • Soft lights, pillows

  • Cushions on floor

Community Language Learning/CLL

  • Designed and elaborated by Charles Curran

  • Eases the learner into gradual independence and self-confidence in the target language

  • S A R D

  • S = Security to foster student confidence

  • A = Attention or aggression ( involvement and frustration)

Total Immersion Technique

  • This technique in foreign language pedagogy “immerses” or “submerges” the student directly into the target language from the first opening day or hour of class. There are basically two types:

  • Effective – begins in hour one wherein the teacher speaks the foreign language slowly, clearly, and uses understandable comprehensible cognates( pictures/photo/TPR

  • Ineffective – begins in hour one wherein the teacher speaks rapidly at native speed as if the students were residing within the target culture.

  • “the superior teacher has regularly gotten superior results regardless of the method.” (Lozanov)

Strategies in Foreign language Learning and Teaching

  • Definition of Strategies:

  • Wenden and Rubin (1987) defines strategies as…”any set of operations, steps, plans, routines used by the learner to facilitate the obtaining, storage, retrieval, and use of information.”

  • Richards and Platt (1992) state that learning strategies are “intentional behavior and thoughts used by learners during learning so as to better help them understand, learn or remember new information.”

Strategies Continued

  • According to Rubin (1987) there are three types of strategies:

  • Learning strategies

  • Communication strategies

  • 3. Social strategies

Learning Strategies

  • Cognitive Learning Strategies

  • Steps or operations used in learning that require direct analysis, transformation, or synthesis

Learning Strategies Cont’d

  • Communication strategies

  • Related to the process of participation in a conversation and getting meaning across or clarifying what the speaker intended

Teacher Role in Strategy Training

  • Teacher should learn about students

  • Interests

  • Goals

  • motivations

  • Learning styles

  • Purpose for learning a language

Application of Techniques

  • Language mastered more meaningfully when instructors utilize:

  • Sounds

  • Patterns

  • Gestures

  • Symbols

  • And multimedia

Techniques continued

  • Good teaching means

  • that the teacher must:

  • Be knowledgeable in discipline

  • Show enthusiasm

  • Emphasize concepts and critical thinking

  • Encourage questions from students

  • Be caring to students(Ali, 2005)

Effective Teaching and Effective Learning Process

Factors Effecting Learning Outcome

Techniques of Positive Teaching

Techniques of Positive Teaching Continued

Learning Process


  • Faryadi, Q., (2007). Techniques of Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language through Constructivist Paradigm: Malaysian Perspective

  • Hadley, A. (2001). Teaching Language in Context, Third Edition, Heinle & Heinle Publishers

  • Hismanoglu, M. (2000). Language Learning

  • Strategies in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching. TESL Journal Vol. VI, No.8, http://itesl.org/ retreived August 8, 2009.

  • Lozanov, G. (1999). Methodologies in Foreign Language Teaching: a brief historical overview.

  • Pufahl, I., Rhodes, N. & Christina, D. (2001). What We can Learn from Foreign Language Teaching in Other countries. Center for Applied Linguistics.

  • Richards, J. & Platt, J. (1992).Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics

  • Wenden, A. & Rubin, J., (1987). Learner Strategies in Language Learning, Prentice Hall.