Dicionario tecnico metalurgico - dictionary of engineering

Dicionario tecnico metalurgico - dictionary of engineering

(Parte 1 de 13)

McGraw-Hill Dictionary of

Engineering

Second Edition

McGraw-Hill

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DOI: 10.1036/0071417990

Prefacev
Staffvi
How to Use the Dictionaryvii
Fields and Their Scopeix
Pronunciation Keyxi
A-Z Terms1-626
Appendix627-643

Contents

Customary System and the metric system629

Equivalents of commonly used units for the U.S.

metric system, and International System630
Special constants634
Electrical and magnetic units635
Dimensional formulas of common quantities635
Internal energy and generalized work636
General rules of integration637
Schematic electronic symbols639

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Preface

The McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Engineering provides a compendium of more than 18,0 terms that are central to the various branches of engineering and related fields of science. The coverage in this Second Edition is focused on building construction, chemical engineering, civil engineering, control systems, design engineering, electricity and electronics, engineering acoustics, industrial engineering, mechanics and mechanical engineering, systems engineering, and thermodynamics.Manynewentrieshavebeenaddedsincethepreviousedition with others revised as necessary. Many of the terms used in engineering are often found in specialized dictionaries and glossaries; this Dictionary, however, aims to provide the user with the convenience of a single, comprehensive reference.

All of the definitions are drawn from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, Sixth Edition (2003). Each definition is classified according to the field with which it is primarily associated; if it is used in more than one area, it is idenfified by the general label [ENGINEERING]. The pronunciation of each term is provided along with synonyms, acronyms, and abbreviations where appropriate. A guide to the use of the Dictionary appears on pages vii and viii, explaining the alphabetical organization of terms, the format of the book, cross referencing, and how synonyms, variant spellings, abbreviations, and similar information are handled. The Pronunciation Key is given on page xi. The Appendix provides conversion tables for commonly used scientific units as well as listings of useful mathematical, engineering, and scientific data.

It is the editors’ hope that the Second Edition of the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Engineering will serve the needs of scientists, engineers, students, teachers, librarians, and writers for high-quality information, and that it will contribute to scientific literacy and communication.

Mark D. Licker Publisher v Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use.

Staff

Mark D. Licker, Publisher—Science

Elizabeth Geller, Managing Editor Jonathan Weil, Senior Staff Editor David Blumel, Staff Editor Alyssa Rappaport, Staff Editor Charles Wagner, Digital Content Manager Renee Taylor, Editorial Assistant

Roger Kasunic, Vice President—Editing, Design, and Production

Joe Faulk, Editing Manager Frank Kotowski, Jr., Senior Editing Supervisor

Ron Lane, Art Director

Thomas G. Kowalczyk, Production Manager Pamela A. Pelton, Senior Production Supervisor

Henry F. Beechhold, Pronunciation Editor Professor Emeritus of English Former Chairman, Linguistics Program The College of New Jersey Trenton, New Jersey vi Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use.

How to Use the Dictionary

ALPHABETIZATION. The terms in the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Engineering, Second Edition, are alphabetized on a letter-by-letter basis; word spacing, hyphen, comma, solidus, and apostrophe in a term are ignored in the sequencing. For example, an ordering of terms would be:

abat-vent ADP Ablock air band Abney level airblasting

FORMAT. The basic format for a defining entry provides the term in boldface, the field is small capitals, and the single definition in lightface:

term [FIELD] Definition.

A field may be followed by multiple definitions, each introduced by a boldface number:

term [FIELD] 1. Definition. 2. Definition. 3. Definition.

A term may have definitions in two or more fields: term [CIV ENG] Definition. [ENG ACOUS] Definition.

A simple cross-reference entry appears as: term See another term.

A cross reference may also appear in combination with definitions: term [CIV ENG] Definition. [ENG ACOUS] Definition.

CROSS REFERENCING. A cross-reference entry directs the user to the defining entry. For example, the user looking up “access flooring” finds:

access flooring See raised flooring.

The user then turns to the “R” terms for the definition. Cross references are also made from variant spellings, acronyms, abbreviations, and symbols.

ARL See acceptable reliability level. arriswise See arrisways. at See technical atmosphere.

ALSO KNOWN AS, etc. A definition may conclude with a mention of a

synonym of the term, a variant spelling, an abbreviation for the term, or other vii Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use.

“Abbreviated, ” “Symbolized ..., ” “Derived from .... ” When a term has

such information, introduced by “Also known as ..., ” “Also spelled ..., ” more than one definition, the positioning of any of these phrases conveys the extent of applicability. For example:

term [CIV ENG] 1. Definition. Also known as synonym. 2. Definition. Symbolized T.

In the above arrangement, “Also known as” applies only to the first defini-
tion; “Symbolized” applies only to the second definition.

term [CIV ENG] 1. Definition. 2. Definition. [ENG ACOUS] Definition. Also known as synonym.

In the above arrangement, “Also known as” applies only to the second field.

term [CIV ENG] Also known as synonym. 1. Definition. 2. Definition. [ENG ACOUS] Definition.

In the above arrangement, “Also known as” applies to both definitions in

the first field.

term Also known as synonym. [CIV ENG] 1. Definition. 2. Definition. [ENG ACOUS] Definition.

In the above arrangement, “Also known as” applies to all definitions in

both fields.

viii

Fields and Their Scope building construction—The technology of assembling materials into a structure, especially one designated for occupancy.

chemical engineering—A branch of engineering which involves the design and operation of chemical plants.

civil engineering—The planning, design, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures and ground facilities for industry, for transportation, for use and control of water, for occupancy, and for harbor facilities.

control systems—The study of those systems in which one or more outputs are forced to change in a desired manner as time progresses.

design engineering—The branch of engineering concerned with the design of a product or facility according to generally accepted uniform standards and procedures, such as the specification of a linear dimension, or a manufacturing practice, such as the consistent use of a particular size of screw to fasten covers.

electricity—The science of physical phenomena involving electric charges and their effects when at rest and when in motion.

electronics—The technological area involving the manipulation of voltages and electric currents through the use of various devices for the purpose of performing some useful action with the currents and voltages; this field is generally divided into analog electronics, in which the signals to be manipulated take the form of continuous currents or voltages, and digital electronics, in which signals are represented by a finite set of states.

engineering—The science by which the properties of matter and the sources of power in nature are made useful to humans in structures, machines, and products.

engineering acoustics—The field of acoustics that deals with the production, detection, and control of sound by electrical devices, including the study, design, and construction of such things as microphones, loudspeakers, sound recorders and reproducers, and public address sytems.

industrial engineering—A branch of engineering dealing with the design, development,andimplementationofintegratedsystemsofhumans,machines, and information resources to provide products and services.

ix Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use.

mechanical engineering—The branch of engineering concerned with energy conversion, mechanics, and mechanisms and devices for diverse applications, ranging from automotive parts through nanomachines.

mechanics—The branch of physics which seeks to formulate general rules for predicting the behavior of a physical system under the influence of any type of interaction with its environment.

systems engineering—The branch of engineering dealing with the design of acomplexinterconnectionofmanyelements(asystem)tomaximizeanagreedupon measure of system performance.

thermodynamics—The branch of physics which seeks to derive, from a few basic postulates, relations between properties of substances, especially those which are affected by changes in temperature, and a description of the conversion of energy from one form to another.

Pronunciation Key

Vowels Consonants a asi nb at, that b as in bib, dribble a as in bait, crate ch as in charge, stretch a as in bother, father d as in dog, bad e asi nb et, net f as in fix, safe e as in beet, treat g as in good, signal i asi nb it, skit h as in hand, behind ı as in bite, light j as in joint, digit o as in boat, note k as in cast, brick o as in bought, taut k as in Bach (used rarely) u as in book, pull l as in loud, bell u as in boot, pool m as in mild, summer ə as in but, sofa na s in new, dent au as in crowd, power n indicates nasalization of preced- oi asi nb oil, spoil ing vowel yə as in formula, spectacular ŋ as in ring,s ingle yu as in fuel, mule p as in pier, slip ra s in red, scar

Semivowels/Semiconsonants sa s in sign, post wa s in wind, twin sh as in sugar, shoe ya s in yet, onion ta s in timid, cat th as in thin, breath

Stress (Accent) th as in then, breathe precedes syllable with primary vas in veil, weave stress z as in zoo, cruise zh as in beige, treasure precedes syllable with secondary stress Syllabication

Indicates syllable boundary¦ precedes syllable with variable when following syllable is or indeterminate primary/ unstressed secondary stress xi Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use.

reposition it if it drifts out of the acceptablea See ampere. range. { ə bort branch }A See ampere; angstrom. Abrams’ law [CIV ENG] In concrete materials,A See angstrom. for a mixture of workable consistency thea axis [MECH ENG] The angle that specifies the strength of concrete is determined by the ratiorotation of a machine tool about the x axis.

of water to cement. { a brəmz lo }{ a ak sis } abrasion [ENG] 1. The removal of surface mate-abandon [ENG] To stop drilling and remove the rial from any solid through the frictional actiondrill rig from the site of a borehole before the of anothersolid, aliquid, ora gasor combinationintended depth or target is reached. { ə ban thereof. 2. A surface discontinuity broughtdən} about by roughening or scratching. { ə bra abate [ENG] 1.To removematerial, forexample, zhən}in carving stone. 2. In metalwork, to excise or abrasion test [MECH ENG] The measurement ofbeatdownthesurfaceinordertocreateapattern abrasion resistance, usually by the weighing ofor figure in low relief. { ə bat} a material sample before and after subjecting itabatement [ENG] 1. The waste produced in cutto a known abrasive stress throughout a knownting a timber, stone, or metal piece to a desired time period, or by reflectance or surface finishsize and shape. 2. A decrease in the amount comparisons, or by dimensional comparisons.of a substance or other quantity, such as atmos-

{ ə bra zhən test }pheric pollution. { ə bat mənt } abrasive belt [MECH ENG] A cloth, leather, orabat-jour [BUILD] A device that is used to depaper band impregnated with grit and rotatedflect daylight downward as it streams through a as an endless loop to abrade materials throughwindow. { a ba zhur} continuous friction. { ə bras əvbelt }abattoir [IND ENG] A building in which cattle or abrasive blasting [MECH ENG] The cleaning orother animals are slaughtered. { ab ə twar} finishing of surfaces by the use of an abrasiveabat-vent [BUILD] A series of sloping boards or entrained in a blast of air. { ə bras əv blast iŋ }metal strips, or some similar contrivance, to abrasive cloth [MECH ENG] Tough cloth tobreak the force of windwithout being an obstrucwhose surface an abrasive such as sand or emerytion to the passage of air or sound, as in a louver has been bonded foruse in grinding or polishing.or chimney cowl. { a ba van} { ə bras əv kloth }ablatograph [ENG] An instrument that records abrasive cone [MECH ENG] An abrasive sint-ablation by measuring the distance a snow or ered or shaped into a solid cone to be rotatedice surface falls during the observation period.

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