Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, & Related Terms

Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, & Related Terms

(Parte 1 de 5)

Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, & Related Terms

Compiled and edited by the Staff of the U.S. Bureau of Mines

Second Edition


As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of the Interior has responsibility for most of our nationally owned public lands and natural resources. This includes fostering the sound use of our land and water resources; protecting our fish, wildlife, and biological diversity; preserving the environmental and cultural values of our national parks and historical places; and providing for the enjoyment of life through outdoor recreation. The Department assesses our energy and mineral resources and works to assure that their development is in the best interests of all our people by encouraging stewardship and citizen participation in their care. The Department also has a major responsibility for American Indian reservation communities and for people who live in island territories under U.S. administration.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bruce Babbitt, Secretary

U.S. BUREAU OF MINES Rhea Lydia Graham, Director

The need for a revised mining dictionary is obvious when one considers the technological advances, environmental regulations, and other changes that have occurred since the Bureau's previous mining dictionaries were published. The Bureau had pioneered efforts in this field, beginning in 1918 with Fay's "Glossary of the Mining and Minerals Industry," and continuing to the 1968 publication "A Dictionary of Mining, Minerals, and Related Terms."

To develop a modern mining dictionary, the U.S. Bureau of Mines initiated a collaborative project with the American Geological Institute. The Bureau's staff, the Institute's staff and members, and many minerals experts throughout the Nation contributed their expertise to this work. In the 5-year project's final phase, more than 100

Bureau personnel were involved in the technical review and publication production process. I would like to thank all those who assisted in producing this new mining dictionary, especially the Dictionary Revision Group members and the Bureau's engineers, scientists, and editors.

The CD-ROM version of the Dictionary Revision is one of the last publications of the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Although the agency is closing, the Bureau's minerals information functions will transfer to the U.S. Geological Survey.

I believe this new dictionary will benefit the Nation by continuing one of the Bureau of Mines important missions, that of providing information on minerals, the building blocks of our modern society, and mining, one of the world's oldest industries.

Rhea Lydia Graham Director January 1996

Technological developments and environmental laws and regulations that affect mining have proliferated during the past 25 years. Concurrently, the need for a modern mining dictionary has grown--one that incorporates not only standard mining-related terms but also terms in peripheral areas, such as the environment, pollution, automation, health and safety. The new edition of the Dictionary of Mining and Mineral Related Terms is the culmination of a 5-year effort between the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the American Geological Institute (USBM CONTRACT NUMBER J0101017) that will serve the needs of those engaged in minerals-related activities. It is organized to aid the user in appreciating the essential role that minerals and their products play in our quality of life.

The Bureau's development of mining dictionaries dates back to Albert Fay's Glossary of the Mining and Mineral Industry, which first appeared in December 1918. That glossary contained about 18,0 terms. In 1968, the Bureau published A Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, and Related Terms, edited by Paul W. Thrush, with about 5,0 terms. The 1968 dictionary contained many new mining terms and terms from such related areas as metallurgy, ceramics, and glassmaking. That edition was as complete as possible with regard to technical and regional terms, historical terms, foreign terms that attained general usage in the United States, and terminology from the entire English-speaking world. For the past three decades that work has stood as the definitive authority on mineral-related terms.

The 1996 edition reflects a departure from the previous one in scope and in format. This edition, containing some 28,500 terms, is not meant to be exhaustive in its coverage. It focuses on mining-related terms and excludes such related categories as ceramics, glass, metallurgy, petroleum, and other specialized disciplines. Geological terms which relate to mining are included, as are minerals which have a commercial value or which are associated with such minerals. Many chemicals and materials that are not usually connected with mining or minerals processing do not appear, nor do the chemical elements unless they are classified as minerals. Abbreviations and acronyms have largely been excluded, because they usually are explained and defined within the context of an individual report. The front material, however, includes a list of abbreviations used in the definitions. New terms on marine mining, leaching, and automation appear in this edition as do a plethora of pollution and environmental terms, many of which have a legal definition based on law or regulation.

The task of deciding which terms should be deleted from this edition, how to ensure the collection of new terms since 1968, and how to cull terms for inclusion was formidable. Terms from the 1968 edition were categorized by computer, and each category was reviewed by at least one subject specialist. The reviewers judged which terms should be retained or deleted, and they revised definitions as necessary and defined new terms. Final judgment on the inclusion of existing terms or the addition of new ones was left to the collective discretion of a panel of experts called the Dictionary Review Group. This group also examined the Society of Mining Engineers' Mining Engineering Handbook, 1993 edition, to ensure that the most modern terms and their definitions would be considered.

Specialists in many aspects of mining have volunteered their help in bringing the widely used "Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, and Related Terms" up to date, by reviewing definitions, adding new terms, recommending corrections, and citing references. Hundreds of specialists contributed to the new edition. The mining and minerals community owes special gratitude to the members of the Dictionary Revision Group: Robert L. Bates; V. A. Cammarota; M. Elizabeth Clare; John DeYoung, Jr.; James F. Donahue; Charles D. Hoyt; Tim O'Neil; Eugene Palowitch; John W. Padan; Gloria Ruggiero; Al Schreck; Robert Tuchman; and Dirk Van Zyl.

Abbreviations of certain terms, place names, and units of measure are used in the definitions as follows:

Abbrev. abbreviation adj. adjective Ant. antonym CF: compare e.g. for example esp. especially et al. and others etc. and so forth Etymol. etymology i.e. that is Pl. plural Pron. pronunciation q.v. which see Sing. singular sp gr specific gravity specif. specifically Syn: or syn. synonym v. or V. verb var. variant

Place names Arg Argentina.

Aust Australia. Belg Belgium. Berks Berkshire, England. Bol Bolivia. Braz Brazil. Brist Bristol Coalfield, England. Can Dominion of Canada. Cent. Am Central America. Ches Cheshire, England.

Clev Cleveland iron district, England. Colom Republic of Colombia. Corn Cornwall, England. Cumb Cumberland Coalfield, England. Derb Derbyshire Coalfield, England. Dev Devonshire, England. E. Ind East Indies. Eng England. Forest of Dean Forest of Dean Coalfield, England. Fr French. Ger German. Gr. Brit Great Britain. Glouc Gloucestershire Coalfield, England. Hid Hidalgo, Mex. Hind Hindustan. Ire Ireland. It Italian. Kent Kent, England. Lanc Lancashire Coalfield, England. Leic Leicestershire, England. Mex Mexico. Mid Midland Coalfield, England. Newc Newcastle Coalfield, England. N.S.W. New South Wales, Australia. N.Z. New Zealand.

Norf Norfolk, England. N. of Eng North of England. N. Staff North Staffordshire Coalfield, England. Northumb Northumberland Coalfield, England. N. Wales North Wales. Pac Pacific Coast, U.S.A. Pat Patagonia, South America. Port Portuguese (mostly in Brazil). Prov Provincial, United States, unless otherwise specified. Pr Prussian. Russ Russia. Scot Scotland. Shrop Shropshire, England. S. Afr Republic of South Africa. S. Am South America. S. Staff South Staffordshire, England. S. Wales South Wales, Great Britain. Som Somerset, England. Sp Spanish origin but not necessarily used in Spain. Sp Am Spanish America. Staff Staffordshire, England. Suff Suffolk, England. Sw Swedish. Trans Transvaal, Republic of South Africa. U.K. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

U.S. United States of America. U.S.S.R. Former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Venez Venezuela. W. Afr West Africa. War Warwickshire, England. York Yorkshire, England.

United States AL Alabama ME Maine OR Oregon

AK Alaska MD Maryland PA Pennsylvania AZ Arizona MA Massachusetts RI Rhode Island AR Arkansas MI Michigan SC South Carolina CA California MN Minnesota SD South Dakota CO Colorado MS Mississippi TN Tennessee CT Connecticut MO Missouri TX Texas DE Delaware MT Montana UT Utah FL Florida NE Nebraska VT Vermont GA Georgia NV Nevada VA Virginia HI Hawaii NH New Hampshire WA Washington ID Idaho NJ New Jersey WV West Virginia IL Illinois NM New Mexico WI Wisconsin IN Indiana NY New York WY Wyoming IA Iowa NC North Carolina CZ Canal Zone KS Kansas ND North Dakota DC District of Columbia KY Kentucky OH Ohio GU Guam LA Louisiana OK Oklahoma PR Puerto Rico

VI Virgin Islands


AB Alberta BC British Columbia LB Labrador MB Manitoba NB New Brunswick NF Newfoundland NT Northwest Territories ON Ontario PE Prince Edward Island PQ Quebec SK Saskatchewan UT Yukon Territory

Units of Measure

Abbreviations for Compound Units Two types of compound unit abbreviations are common.

1. In the metric system, many units comprise a basic unit, such as "m" (meter) modified by a prefix that acts as a "power of ten" multiplier. Thus "cm" is a "centi" "meter", onehundredth of a meter or 102 meter.

Several compound metric units are widely used in this volume:

mum * micrometer(s) cm centimeter(s) kJ kilojoule(s) km kilometer(s) kPa kilopascal(s) MJ megajoule(s) mL milliliter(s) m millimeter(s) mPa megapascal(s) * No Greek letter symbols appear

2. Complex units are developed by multiplying or dividing units. The metric units for momentum, for example, are kg-m/s, which is read Newton meters per second.

Abbreviations for Units of Measure degrees C degrees Celsius degrees F degrees Fahrenheit A ampere(s) atm standard atmosphere AU astronomical unit bbl barrel(s) Bcf billion cubic feet (gas flow) Bcfd billion cubic feet per day (gas flow) Bcfy billion cubic feet per year (gas flow) Btu British thermal unit(s) Bunit billion unit(s) c cycle(s) c centi (one-hundredth); prefix only C coulomb(s) cal calorie(s) cd candela(s)

Ci curie(s) cmil circular mil cp candlepower cpm count(s) per minute cps count(s) per second d day(s) d deci (one-tenth); prefix only D darcy(s) dB decibel(s) dyn dyne(s) eV electron volt(s) F fermi(s) F farad(s) fc footcandle(s) fl oz fluid ounce(s) ft foot/feet ft/s foot/feet per second ft2 square foot/feet ft-lbf foot pound(s) (force) g gram(s) g, G Gal (gravity constant) G giga (one billion); prefix only gal gallon(s) Gs gauss h hour(s) ha hectare(s) H.E. high explosive(s) hp horsepower hp-h horsepower hour Hz cycle(s) per second in Hg inch(es) of mercury in inch(es) in H2O inch(es) of water J joule(s) k kilo (one thousand); prefix only K kelvin l liter(s) L liter(s) (preferred form) L lambert(s) lb pound(s) lbf pound(s) force lbf-ft pound(s) force foot lt long ton(s) m meter m milli (one-thousandth); prefix only M mega (one million) Mcf thousand cubic feet (gas flow) Mcfd thousand cubic feet per day mho mho(s) mi mile(s) mil thousandth of an inch MMbbl million barrels MMcf million cubic feet (gas flow) MMcfd million cubic feet per day (gas flow) MMcfy million cubic feet per year (gas flow) mol mole(s) mol wt mole weight mol % mole percent mpg mile(s) per gallon mph mile(s) per hour Mx maxwell(s) n nano (one-billionth); prefix only n refractive index N Newton(s) nmi nautical mile(s) Oe oersted(s) ohm-cmil/ft ohm circular mil per foot oz ounce(s) p pico (one-trillionth); prefix only P poise(s) Pa pascal(s) pct percent ppb part(s) per billion ppm part(s) per million psi pound(s) (force) per square inch psia pound(s) force per square inch, absolute psig pound(s) force per square inch, gauge r revolution(s) R roentgen(s) rad radian(s) rpm revolutions per minute s second(s) S siemens(s) sr steradian(s) st stere(s) st short ton(s) St stokes std ft3 standard cubic foot/feet t metric ton(s) t/w-h metric ton(s) per worker hour t/w-d metric ton(s) per worker day T tesla(s) tr oz troy ounce(s) unit-1 reciprocal unit unit2 square unit (or unit squared) unit3 cubic unit W watt(s) Wb weber(s) wt %, wt pct weight percent yd yard(s) yr year(s)

Legislation Related to Mining and Minerals

Clean Air Act of 1970 Clean Air and Water Act Amendments of 1977 Comprehensive Env. Response Comp., & Liability Act (CERCLA) Deep Seabed Hard Mineral Resources Act of 1980 Endangered Species Act of 1973 Federal Land Policy & Management Act of 1976 Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 Law of the Sea Treaty Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands Mining Law of 1872 National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act of 1953 Resource Conservation & Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Submerged Lands Act of 1953 Superfund Amendments & Reauthorization Act of 1986 Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act, 1978 Water Quality Act of 1987

Organizations and Acronyms

Air Pollution Control Association (APCA) American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) American Chemical Society (ACS) American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) American Electrochemical Society (AES) American Electromechanical Society (AES) American Electroplaters' Society (AES) American Foundrymen's Association (AFA) American Foundrymen's Society (AFS) American Gas Association (AGA) American Geological Institute (AGI) American Heritage Center (AHC) American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. (AIME) American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) (U.S. rep. to ISO)

American Petroleum Institute (API) American Public Health Association (APHA) American Society for Metals (ASM) American Society for Testing & Materials (ASTM) American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) Association of Iron Ore Exporting Countries (AIOEC) Bituminous Coal Institute (BCI) Bituminous Coal Operators' Association (BCOA) Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) Canada Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (CIM) Central Selling Organization (CSO) Commission of the European Communities (CEC) Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Conseil Intergouvernemental des Pays Exportateurs de Cuivre (CIPEC) Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) EROS Data Center European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) European Community (EC) European Free Trade Association (EFTA) Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) General Services Administration (GSA) Geological Society of America (GSA) GeoRef Information Services Geoscience Information Society (GIS) Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute (IITRI) Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPAA) Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Institute of Makers of Explosives (IME) Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) Institution of Mining and Metallurgy (IMM) Instrument Society of America (ISA) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) International Copper Study Group International Energy Agency (IEA) International Labor Organization (ILO) International Lead and Zinc Study Group International Nickel Study Group International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Tin Council (ITC) (defunct)

(Parte 1 de 5)