Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering - An Integrated Approach

Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering - An Integrated Approach

(Parte 1 de 7)

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Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering

An Integrated Approach

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Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering

An Integrated Approach

Department of Metallurgical Engineering The University of Utah

David G. Rethwisch

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering The University of Iowa

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Front Cover: Depiction of a boron nitride nanotube. Red and blue spheres represent boron and nitrogen atoms, respectively.

Back Cover: Representation of a carbon nanotube, both ends of which are capped with C60 fullerene hemispheres.

Associate Publisher Dan Sayre Acquisitions Editor Jennifer Welter Editorial Assistant Sandra Kim Marketing Manager Chris Ruel Senior Production Editor Ken Santor Senior Designer Kevin Murphy Cover Art Roy Wiemann Senior Illustration Editor Sigmund Malinowski Media Editor Lauren Sapira

This book was set in LaTeX by Aptara, Inc. and printed and bound by Quebecor Versailles. The cover was printed by Quebecor.

This book is printed on acid free paper. ∞

Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 2 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (508)750-8400, fax (508)750-4470, Web site w.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1 River Street, Hoboken NJ 07030-5774, (2012) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, E-Mail: PERMREQ@WILEY.COM Web site w.wiley.com/go/permissions.

To order books or for customer service please call 1(800)-CALL WILEY (225-5945).

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Fundamentals of materials science and engineering : an integrated approach /

William D. Callister ; with special contributions by David G. Rethwisch.—3rd ed. p. cm.

Includes index. ISBN 978-0-470-12537-3 (cloth) 1. Materials. I. Rethwisch, David G. I. Title. TA403.C227 2008 620.1′1—dc22

Printed in the United States 10987654321

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Dedicated to the memory of Genevieve Johns Callister, 1913–2007

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Preface

In this Third Edition we have retained the objectives and approaches for teaching materials science and engineering that were presented in previous editions. The first, and primary, objective is to present the basic fundamentals on a level appropriate for university/college students who have completed their freshmen calculus, chemistry, and physics courses. In order to achieve this goal, we have endeavored to use terminology that is familiar to the student who is encountering the discipline of materials scienceandengineeringforthefirsttime,andalsotodefineandexplainallunfamiliar terms.

The second objective is to present the subject matter in a logical order, from the simple to the more complex. Each chapter builds on the content of previous ones.

The third objective, or philosophy, that we strive to maintain throughout the text is that if a topic or concept is worth treating, then it is worth treating in sufficient detail and to the extent that students have the opportunity to fully understand it withouthavingtoconsultothersources;also,inmostcases,somepracticalrelevanceis provided.Discussionsareintendedtobeclearandconciseandtobeginatappropriate levels of understanding.

The fourth objective is to include features in the book that will expedite the learning process. These learning aids include:

• Numerous illustrations, now presented in full color, and photographs to help visualize what is being presented;

• Learning objectives, to focus student attention on what they should be getting from each chapter;

• “Why Study” and “Materials of Importance” items that provide relevance to

topic discussions;

• Key terms, and descriptions of key equations, highlighted in the margins for quick reference;

• End-of-chapter questions and problems designed to progressively develop students’ understanding of concepts and facility with skills;

• Answers to selected problems, so that students can check their work;

• A glossary, list of symbols, and references to facilitate understanding the subject matter.

The fifth objective is to enhance the teaching and learning process by using the newer technologies that are available to most instructors and students of engineering today.

• ix

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There are two common approaches for materials science and engineering—one that we call the “traditional” approach, and the other which most refer to as the “integrated” approach. With the integrated approach, one particular structure, characteristic, or property for all three material types is presented before moving on to the discussion of another structure/characteristic/property. This is the order of presentation in this book, Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering, Third Edition, which is depicted by the following schematic diagram:

Structures

Metals Ceramics Polymers

Metals Ceramics Polymers

Metals Ceramics Polymers

Metals Ceramics Polymers

Properties

Defects Diffusion Mechanical

Some instructors prefer this organizational approach for the following reasons: (1) students come to realize and appreciate differences in the characteristics and properties of the various material types; and (2) when considering properties and processing, all material types should be included.

With the traditional approach, structures/characteristics/properties of metals are presented first, followed by analogous discussions for ceramic materials and polymers. Our other book, Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, Seventh Edition is organized in this manner.

NEW TO THIS EDITION New/Revised Content

Several important changes have been made with this Third Edition. One of the most significant is the incorporation of a number of new sections, as well as revisions/amplifications of other sections. New sections/discussions are as follows:

• One-Component (or Unary) Phase Diagrams (Section 10.6) • Compacted graphite iron (in Section 13.2, “Ferrous Alloys”)

• Lost Foam Casting (in Section 14.3, “Casting”)

• TemperaturedependenceofFrenkelandSchottkydefects(inSection5.3,“Point Defects in Ceramics”)

• Crystallization of glass-ceramics, in terms of continuous cooling transformation diagrams (in Section 13.5, “Glass-Ceramics”)

• Permeability in polymers (in Section 6.7, “Diffusion in Ionic and Polymeric Materials”)

Those sections that have been revised/amplified include the following:

• Treatments in Chapter 1 (“Introduction”) on the several material types have been enlarged to include comparisons of various property values (as bar charts).

• Refined terminology and representations of polymer structures (Sections 4.3 through 4.8).

• Eliminated discussion on fringed-micelle model (found in Section 4.12 of the second edition).

• Enhanced discussion on defects in polymers (Section 5.5).

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Preface • xi

• Comparisons of (1) dimensional size ranges for various structural elements, and (2) resolution ranges for the several microscopic examination techniques (in Section 5.12, “Microscopic Techniques”).

• Updates on hardness testing techniques (Section 7.16).

• Revised discussion on the Burgers vector (Section 8.5).

• New discussion on why recrystallization temperature depends on the purity of a metal (Section 8.13).

• Revised discussion on deformation of semicrystalline polymers (Section 8.17)

• Transferred some of the details on fracture mechanics (Section 9.5) to an online module (Web Module M).

• Expanded discussion on nondestructive testing (Section 9.5).

• Transferred some of the discussion on crack initiation and propagation (for fatigue, Section 9.12), and the section on crack propagation rate (Section 9.13 of the second edition) to an online module (Web Module M).

• Expanded discussion of polymer adhesives (in Section 13.15).

• Updated the discussion on the process for making sheet glass (in Section 14.7).

• Revised discussions on polymerization (Section 14.1) and the fabrication of fibers and films (Section 14.15).

• Revised treatment of polymer degradation (Section 16.12).

Mater ials of Importance

In “Materials of Importance” sections we discuss familiar and interesting materials/ applications of materials. These pieces lend some relevance to topical coverage, are found in most chapters in the book, and include the following:

• Carbonated Beverage Containers • Water (Its Volume Expansion Upon Freezing)

• Tin (Its Allotropic Transformation)

• Catalysts (and Surface Defects)

• Aluminum for Integrated Circuit Interconnects

• Lead-Free Solders

• Shape-Memory Alloys

• Metal Alloys Used for Euro Coins

• Carbon Nanotubes

• Piezoelectric Ceramics

• Shrink-Wrap Polymer Films

• Phenolic Billiard Balls

• Nanocomposites in Tennis Balls

• Aluminum Electrical Wires

• Invar and Other Low-Expansion Alloys

• An Iron-Silicon Alloy That is Used in Transformer Cores

• Light-Emitting Diodes

Discipline-Specific Modules

A set of discipline-specific modules appear on the book’s Web site. These modules treat materials science/engineering topics, not covered in the print text, that are

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Format Chang es

There are several other major changes from the format of the second edition. First of all, no CD-ROM is packaged with the in-print text; all electronic components are found on the book’s Web site (w.wiley.com/college/callister). Also, whereas five chapters of the second edition were in electronic format only (i.e., not in print), in this third edition, all chapters are in print. In addition, approximately half of the endof-chapter problems and questions have been removed from the print book, and are posted on both Student and Instructor Companion Sites. This has allowed us to keep the book to a reasonable length, while still making all of the problems and questions available to both students and instructors for use in assignments.

STUDENT LEARNING RESOURCES (w.wiley.com/college/callister)

Also found on the book’s Web site (under “Student Companion Site”) are several important instructional elements for the student that complement the text; these include the following: 1. VMSE: Virtual Materials Science and Engineering. This is an expanded version of the software program that accompanied the previous edition. It consists of interactive simulations and animations that enhance the learning of key concepts in materials science and engineering, and, in addition, a materials properties/cost database. Students can access VMSE via the registration code included on the inside front cover of the textbook.

Throughout the book, whenever there is some text or a problem that is supplemented by VMSE, a small “icon” that denotes the associated module is included in one of the margins. These modules and their corresponding icons are as follows:

Metallic Crystal Structures and CrystallographyPhase Diagrams

Ceramic Crystal StructuresDiffusion

Repeat Unit and Polymer Tensile TestsStructures

Dislocations Solid-Solution Strengthening

2. Answers to the Concept Check questions. Students can visit the Web site to find the correct answers to the Concept Check questions. 3.Directaccesstoonlineself-assessmentexercises.ThisisaWeb-basedassessment program that contains questions and problems similar to those found in the text; these problems/questions are organized and labeled according to textbook sections. An answer/solution that is entered by the user in response to a question/problem is graded immediately, and comments are offered for incorrect responses. The student

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Preface • xiii may use this electronic resource to review course material, and to assess his/her mastery and understanding of topics covered in the text. 4. Index of Learning Styles. Upon answering a 4-item questionnaire, a user’s learning style preference (i.e., the manner in which information is assimilated and processed) is assessed. 5. Extended Learning Objectives—a more extensive list of learning objectives than is provided at the beginning of each chapter. These direct the student to study the subject material to a greater degree of depth. 6. Links to Other Web Resources. These links are categorized according to general internet, software, teaching, specific course content/activities, and materials databases.

The “Instructor Companion Site” (w.wiley.com/college/callister) is available for instructors who have adopted this text. Please visit the Web site to register for access. Resources that are available include the following: 1.InstructorSolutionsManual.Detailedsolutionsofallend-of-chapterquestions and problems (in both Word r© and Adobe Acrobat r© PDF formats). 2 Photographs, illustrations, and tables that appear in the book. These are in both

(Parte 1 de 7)

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