Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering - An Integrated Approach

Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering - An Integrated Approach

(Parte 2 de 7)

PDF and JPEG formats so that instructors can print them for handouts or prepare transparencies in their desired format. 3. A set of PowerPoint r©lecture slides. These slides, developed by Peter M. Anderson (The Ohio State University), follow the flow of topics in the text, and include materials from the text and other sources as well as illustrations and animations. Instructors may use the slides as is or edit them to fit their teaching needs. 4. A list of classroom demonstrations and laboratory experiments. These portray phenomena and/or illustrate principles that are discussed in the book; references are also provided that give more detailed accounts of these demonstrations. 5. Conversion guide. This guide notes, for each homework problem/question (by number), whether or not it appeared in the second edition of Fundamentals, and, if so, its number in this previous edition. Some problems have been refreshed (i.e., new numbers were assigned to values of parameters given the problem statement); refreshed problems are also indicated in this conversion guide. 6.Suggestedcoursesyllabiforthevariousengineeringdisciplines.Instructorsmay consult these syllabi for guidance in course/lecture organization and planning.

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WileyPLUSgivesyou,theinstructor,thetechnologytocreateanenvironmentwhere students reach their full potential and experience academic success that will last a lifetime! With WileyPLUS, students will come to class better prepared for your lectures,getimmediatefeedbackandcontext-sensitivehelponassignmentsandquizzes, and have access to a full range of interactive learning resources including a complete onlineversionoftheirtext.WileyPLUSgivesyouawealthofpresentationandpreparation tools, easy-to-navigate assessment tools including an online gradebook, and a complete system to administer and manage your course exactly as you wish. Contact your local Wiley representative for details on how to set up your WileyPLUS course, or visit the Web site at w.wileyplus.com.

We have a sincere interest in meeting the needs of educators and students in the materials science and engineering community, and, therefore, would like to solicit

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Appreciation is expressed to those who have made contributions to this edition. We sincerelyappreciateGrantE.Head’sexpertprogrammingskills,whichheusedindevelopingtheVirtualMaterialsScienceandEngineeringsoftware.Importantinputwas also furnished by Carl Wood of Utah State University, W. Roger Cannon of Rutgers University (retired), Katherine C. Chen of California Polytechnic State University (San Luis Obispo), Guna Selvaduray of San Jose State University, Ralf Burgel of the SwissFederalLaboratoriesforMaterialsTestingandResearch,andAudreyA.Butler of the University of Iowa to whom we also give thanks. In addition, helpful ideas andsuggestionshavebeenprovidedbythefollowing:PraneshB.Aswath,University of Texas at Arlington; Russell J. Composto, University of Pennsylvania; Lisa Friis, University of Kansas; Joseph I. Goldstein, University of Massachusetts Amherst; Richard Griffin, Texas A & M University; Jaime C. Grunlan, Texas A & M University; Carol Handwerker, Purdue University; Maureen M. Julian, Virginia Tech; Angela L. Moran, United States Naval Academy; Steven Nutt, University of Southern California; David C. Paine, Brown University; Ken Sampson, Ohio University; Thomas W. Staley, Virginia Tech.

We are also indebted to Jenny Welter and Joseph P. Hayton, Sponsoring Editors, and to Kenneth Santor, Senior Production Editor at Wiley for their assistance and guidance on this revision.

Since undertaking the task of writing this and previous editions, instructors and students, too numerous to mention, have shared their input and contributions on how to make this work more effective as a teaching and learning tool. To all those who have helped, we express our sincere Thanks!

Last, but certainly not least, the continual encouragement and support of our families and friends is deeply and sincerely appreciated.

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Contents

LIST OF SYMBOLS xi

1 Introduction 1

Learning Objectives 2 1.1 Historical Perspective 2 1.2 Materials Science and Engineering 3 1.3 Why Study Materials Science and Engineering? 5 1.4 Classification of Materials 5 1.5 Advanced Materials 10

1.6 Modern Materials Needs 13

References 14 Questions 14

2 Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding 15

Learning Objectives 16 2.1 Introduction 16

ATOMIC STRUCTURE 16

2.2 Fundamental Concepts 16 2.3 Electrons in Atoms 17 2.4 The Periodic Table 23

ATOMIC BONDING IN SOLIDS 24

2.5 Bonding Forces and Energies 24 2.6 Primary Interatomic Bonds 27 2.7 Secondary Bonding or van der Waals Bonding 31

Summary 34 Important Terms and Concepts 35 References 35 Questions and Problems 35

3 Structures of Metals and Ceramics 37

Learning Objectives 38 3.1 Introduction 38 3.2 Fundamental Concepts 38

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURES 38

3.3 Unit Cells 39 3.4 Metallic Crystal Structures 40 3.5 Density Computations—

Metals 4 3.6 Ceramic Crystal Structures 45 3.7 Density Computations—

Allotropy 61 3.1 Crystal Systems 61

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC POINTS, DIRECTIONS, AND PLANES 64

3.12 Point Coordinates 64 3.13 Crystallographic Directions 6 3.14 Crystallographic Planes 70 3.15 Linear and Planar Densities 75 3.16 Close-Packed Crystal Structures 7

CRYSTALLINE AND NONCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS 80

Determination of Crystal Structures 83

3.21 Noncrystalline Solids 87

Summary 89 Important Terms and Concepts 91 References 92 Questions and Problems 92

Learning Objectives 98 4.1 Introduction 98 4.2 Hydrocarbon Molecules 98 4.3 Polymer Molecules 100 4.4 The Chemistry of Polymer

Summary 123 Important Terms and Concepts 124 References 124 Questions and Problems 125

5 Imperfections in Solids 127

Learning Objectives 128 5.1 Introduction 128

POINT DEFECTS 128

5.2 Point Defects in Metals 128 5.3 Point Defects in Ceramics 130 5.4 Impurities in Solids 133 5.5 Point Defects in Polymers 136 5.6 Specification of Composition 136

MISCELLANEOUS IMPERFECTIONS 140

5.7 Dislocations—Linear

Defects 140 5.8 Interfacial Defects 144 5.9 Bulk or Volume Defects 147 5.10 Atomic Vibrations 147

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION 149

5.13 Grain Size Determination 155

Summary 156 Important Terms and Concepts 158 References 158 Questions and Problems 158

6 Diffusion 161

Learning Objectives 162 6.1 Introduction 162 6.2 Diffusion Mechanisms 163 6.3 Steady-State Diffusion 165 6.4 Nonsteady-State Diffusion 167 6.5 Factors That Influence

Diffusion 171 6.6 Other Diffusion Paths 177 6.7 Diffusion in Ionic and Polymeric

Materials 177 Summary 181 Important Terms and Concepts 182 References 182 Questions and Problems 182

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Contents • xvii

7 Mechanical Properties 186

Learning Objectives 187 7.1 Introduction 187 7.2 Concepts of Stress and Strain 188

ELASTIC DEFORMATION 192

7.3 Stress–Strain Behavior 192 7.4 Anelasticity 196 7.5 Elastic Properties of Materials 196

MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR—METALS 199

7.6 Tensile Properties 200 7.7 True Stress and Strain 207 7.8 Elastic Recovery After Plastic

Deformation 210 7.9 Compressive, Shear, and Torsional Deformation 211

MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR— CERAMICS 211

7.10 Flexural Strength 211 7.1 Elastic Behavior 213 7.12 Influence of Porosity on the

Mechanical Properties of Ceramics 213

MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR— POLYMERS 214

HARDNESS AND OTHER MECHANICAL PROPERTY CONSIDERATIONS 2

7.16 Hardness 2 7.17 Hardness of Ceramic

Materials 228 7.18 Tear Strength and Hardness of Polymers 228

PROPERTY VARIABILITY AND DESIGN/SAFETY FACTORS 229

7.19 Variability of Material

Properties 229

Summary 233 Important Terms and Concepts 235

References 235 Questions and Problems 236

8 Deformation and

Strengthening Mechanisms 242

Learning Objectives 243 8.1 Introduction 243

DEFORMATION MECHANISMS FOR METALS 243

8.2 Historical 244 8.3 Basic Concepts of

Dislocations 244 8.4 Characteristics of

Dislocations 246 8.5 Slip Systems 248 8.6 Slip in Single Crystals 250 8.7 Plastic Deformation of

Polycrystalline Metals 253 8.8 Deformation by Twinning 255

MECHANISMS OF STRENGTHENING IN METALS 256

8.9 Strengthening by Grain Size

Reduction 257 8.10 Solid-Solution

Strengthening 259 8.1 Strain Hardening 260

RECOVERY,R ECRYSTALLIZATION, AND GRAIN GROWTH 263

DEFORMATION MECHANISMS FOR CERAMIC MATERIALS 270

8.15 Crystalline Ceramics 271 8.16 Noncrystalline Ceramics 271

MECHANISMS OF DEFORMATION AND FOR STRENGTHENING OF POLYMERS 272

8.17 Deformation of Semicrystalline

Polymers 272 8.18 Factors That Influence the

Mechanical Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers 274 8.19 Deformation of

Elastomers 278 Summary 281 Important Terms and

Concepts 283

References 283 Questions and Problems 284

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Learning Objectives 289 9.1 Introduction 289

FRACTURE 289

Mechanics 293 9.6 Brittle Fracture of

FATIGUE 314

9.9 Cyclic Stresses 315 9.10 The S–N Curve 317 9.1 Fatigue in Polymeric

Materials 319 9.12 Crack Initiation and

Propagation 320 9.13 Factors that Affect Fatigue

Life 322 9.14 Environmental Effects 325

CREEP 326

9.15 Generalized Creep

Behavior 326 9.16 Stress and Temperature

Effects 328 9.17 Data Extrapolation

Methods 329 9.18 Alloys for High-Temperature

Use 331 9.19 Creep in Ceramic and Polymeric

Materials 331 Summary 332 Important Terms and Concepts 334 References 334 Questions and Problems 335

10 Phase Diagrams 339

Learning Objectives 340 10.1 Introduction 340

DEFINITIONS AND BASIC CONCEPTS 340

10.4 Microstructure 342 10.5 Phase Equilibria 342 10.6 One-Component (or Unary) Phase Diagrams 343

BINARY PHASE DIAGRAMS 345

10.7 Binary Isomorphous

Systems 345 10.8 Interpretation of Phase

Diagrams 347 10.9 Development of Microstructure in Isomorphous Alloys 351 10.10 Mechanical Properties of

Isomorphous Alloys 355 10.1 Binary Eutectic Systems 356 10.12 Development of Microstructure in Eutectic Alloys 361 10.13 Equilibrium Diagrams Having

Intermediate Phases or Compounds 369 10.14 Eutectoid and Peritectic

Reactions 371 10.15 Congruent Phase

Transformations 372 10.16 Ceramic Phase Diagrams 373 10.17 Ternary Phase Diagrams 378 10.18 The Gibbs Phase Rule 378

THE IRON–CARBON SYSTEM 380

10.19 The Iron–Iron Carbide

(Fe–Fe3C) Phase Diagram 380 10.20 Development of Microstructure in Iron–Carbon Alloys 384 10.21 The Influence of Other Alloying

Elements 391 Summary 392 Important Terms and Concepts 394 References 394 Questions and Problems 394

1 Phase Transformations 400

Learning Objectives 401 1.1 Introduction 401

PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN METALS 401

1.2 Basic Concepts 402 1.3 The Kinetics of Phase

Transformations 402 1.4 Metastable Versus Equilibrium States 413

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Contents • xix

MICROSTRUCTURAL AND PROPERTY CHANGES IN IRON–CARBON ALLOYS 414

1.5 Isothermal Transformation

Diagrams 414 1.6 Continuous Cooling

Transformation Diagrams 426 1.7 Mechanical Behavior of

Iron–Carbon Alloys 430 1.8 Tempered Martensite 434 1.9 Review of Phase

Transformations and Mechanical Properties for Iron–Carbon Alloys 437

PRECIPITATION HARDENING 438

1.10 Heat Treatments 441 1.1 Mechanism of Hardening 443 1.12 Miscellaneous Considerations 446

CRYSTALLIZATION,M ELTING, AND GLASS TRANSITION PHENOMENA IN POLYMERS 447

Temperatures 449 1.17 Factors That Influence Melting and Glass Transition

Temperatures 450 Summary 452 Important Terms and Concepts 454 References 454 Questions and Problems 454

12 Electrical Properties 460

Learning Objectives 461 12.1 Introduction 461

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION 461

12.2 Ohm’s Law 461 12.3 Electrical Conductivity 462 12.4 Electronic and Ionic

Conduction 463 12.5 Energy Band Structures in

Solids 463 12.6 Conduction in Terms of Band and Atomic Bonding Models 466 12.7 Electron Mobility 467

12.8 Electrical Resistivity of

Metals 469 12.9 Electrical Characteristics of Commercial Alloys 471

SEMICONDUCTIVITY 474

12.10 Intrinsic Semiconduction 474 12.1 Extrinsic Semiconduction 477 12.12 The Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentration 481 12.13 Factors That Affect Carrier

Mobility 483 12.14 The Hall Effect 488 12.15 Semiconductor Devices 489

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN IONIC CERAMICS AND IN POLYMERS 496

12.16 Conduction in Ionic

Materials 497 12.17 Electrical Properties of Polymers 497

DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR 498

Polarization 500 12.20 Types of Polarization 504 12.21 Frequency Dependence of the

Dielectric Constant 505 12.2 Dielectric Strength 506 12.23 Dielectric Materials 507

OTHER ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS 507

Summary 509 Important Terms and Concepts 511 References 511 Questions and Problems 512

13 Types and Applications of Materials 516

Learning Objectives 517 13.1 Introduction 517

TYPES OF METAL ALLOYS 517

TYPES OF CERAMICS 540

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TYPES OF POLYMERS 552

Applications 557 13.16 Advanced Polymeric

Materials 559 Summary 563 Important Terms and Concepts 565 References 565 Questions and Problems 566

14 Synthesis, Fabrication, and Processing of Materials 568

Learning Objectives 569 14.1 Introduction 569

FABRICATION OF METALS 569

THERMAL PROCESSING OF METALS 574

14.5 Annealing Processes 575 14.6 Heat Treatment of Steels 577

FABRICATION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS 589

14.7 Fabrication and Processing of Glasses and Glass– Ceramics 589 14.8 Fabrication and Processing of Clay Products 594 14.9 Powder Pressing 600 14.10 Tape Casting 602

SYNTHESIS AND FABRICATION OF POLYMERS 603

Plastics 607 14.14 Fabrication of Elastomers 610 14.15 Fabrication of Fibers and Films 610

Summary 612 Important Terms and Concepts 613 References 614 Questions and Problems 614

15 Composites 617

Learning Objectives 618 15.1 Introduction 618

PARTICLE-REINFORCED COMPOSITES 620

15.2 Large–Particle Composites 620 15.3 Dispersion-Strengthened Composites 624

FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES 625

15.4 Influence of Fiber Length 625 15.5 Influence of Fiber Orientation and Concentration 626 15.6 The Fiber Phase 635 15.7 The Matrix Phase 637 15.8 Polymer-Matrix

Composites 637 15.9 Metal-Matrix Composites 644 15.10 Ceramic-Matrix

Composites 645 15.1 Carbon–Carbon

Composites 646 15.12 Hybrid Composites 647 15.13 Processing of Fiber-Reinforced Composites 648

(Parte 2 de 7)

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