KGB Alpha team training manual

KGB Alpha team training manual

(Parte 7 de 8)

PeterBerce Translator Washington, D.C.

This manual offers a study of special physical education and some questions on concurrent monitoring of military personnel's state of health and application of means to restore physical strength after exertion.

The manual is meant for physical education specialists and for commanders and instructors of units with increased combat readiness.

The author wishes to thank comrades S.A. Golov, A.A.

Nabokov, N.A. Zubkov, A.N. Kharin, and the unarmed combat specialists of military units 33965 and 35690.

Editorial and production supervision was by V.P. Simonov. Art production was by N.A. Bil'din.

This manual contains practical material on the movement of troops in varied settings, overcoming obstacles and unruined positions, personal/hand-to-hand combat that employs feints and ruses and diverse physical objects, and gives information for monitoring health and ways of restoring it after heavy physical exertion.

The manual's purpose and contents are a response to the need for training armed forces personnel under conditions that are as close as possible to those of true combat operations. Superior combat effectiveness of the personnel in varied situations is the determining factor in carrying out missions. Such effectiveness ensures a high level of political and moral-psychological preparedness and physical toughness. Under conditions of actual danger that produce significant psychological stress, the outcome of combat operations will depend fully on skillful and decisive action. Achieving the highest results promotes the skillful use of personal weapons and the sure application of the different forms of personal combat in swiftly changing situations.

Troops' moral-political preparation and psychological conditioning become real in the course of combat, political training sessions, and special physical training. High moral-psychological qualities are shaped in all ways by military service and its system of occupation assignments. In a study of exercises, activities, and techniques that entail risks,it is important, in the interests of the trainees' psychological well-being, to think through beforehand a system for protection against injuries. The manual's instructional material examines the effects of physical exertion on personnel. Endurance is the fundamental quality, the basis of the soldiers' special physical training. The manual presents an array of measuring methods that permit a fairly accurate assessment of the levels of development of this quality of endurance under combat conditions. The manual's contents are enhanced by a considerable amount of graphic material. Some aspects of special physical training are shown in Figure 1. Physical education is an ingredient of Communist education.

FIGURE 1. ASPECTS OF SPECIAL PHYSICAL TRAINING 6

This [physical education] strengthens the health of the Soviet people and aids their all-around development. Physical education is one of the important means of preparing the nation for work activity and for th.e defense of the Motherland. The Party's Program presents the task of educating the new person ["new Soviet Man"], harmoniously combining in him spiritual wealth, moral purity, and physical perfection.

The ideological foundation of our physical education system makes manifest the Marxist-Leninist doctrine of the unity and indissolubility of the system of mental and physical growth. Data from the social and natural sciences constitute the scientificmethodological basis of that system, which is also the only national program for physical education in existence.

Physical training, as one kind of physical education, is a process of perfecting the motor capabilities of an individual, keeping in mind the specific traits of that individual.

The principal recipients of physical training, which is made clear in the manual, are armed forces personnel. The training is governed by programs confirmed by orders of the relevant ministries and administrations.

Physical training stands out as a means of losing excess weight, while raising combat readiness. Aside from these, the training methods can bring out some special, outstandingly pro-

FIGURE 2. BASIC ELEMENTS OF A PHYSICAL TRAINING SYSTEM; ITS TARGETS AND GOALS fessional qualities, which can then be more quickly recognized and developed for the needs of specific branches of the service.

An objective of physical training is the methodicalness of building training for personnel and directing such a process.

Within the training of armed forces members are the selection and application of the means, methods, and forms that, at an operational level, guarantee the general and specific goals of each service branch or occupation. Physical exercise, sports, and restoration of natural strength serve as the means. The direction of physical exercise, the utilization of various sports, and maintenance of natural strength are the methods. Systematic use of the methods and specified ways of influencing individuals' constitutions in toto, along with pedagogical techniques, are the body of the methods. Special physical training is closely tied to the troops' intellectual and moral-aesthetic instruction and technical education in the process of mastering different training and disciplines.

Achieving physical goals after intensive mental activity is an active way of relaxing and safeguarding the lasting acquisition of knowledge. In planning exercises, the principle of alternating the- oretical with practical drills requires a workable schedule. The teaching must be systematic.

Special physical training, while heightening combat readiness and discarding anything superficial, hardens the trainees through a plan of morale/willpower, producing psychological stability under unfavorable circumstances and professional responses.

Such results are achieved through specially chosen physical exercises, activities, devices, and myriad approaches.

Figure 2 presents schematically the basic elements of physical training and its goals .and aims.

Through physical exertion, internal changes and shifts of an anatomical-physiological character appear, which manifest them- selves in a human organism under the influence of this exertion. The shape physical training takes is the stuff of drills, morning calisthenics, different types of independent work, the training done in sports training units, and so on (Figure 3).

. The basic forms of special physical training determine the activities for all personnel.

Special physical training stays on its target with the help of effec- tive means, methods, and forms to ensure the superior development of special physical and psychological qualities and applied skills.

Special physical training has: • General goals:

-Developing strength, agility, and endurance;

-Mastering a range of applied movement skills such as getting through obstacles and water barriers, and skiing;

-Strengthening health, improving indexes of physical development, hardening and raising the organism's defense against hostile factors;

FIGURE 3. FORMS OF SPECIAL PHYSICAL TRAINING

• Specific goals:

-Forming moral-political and psychological qualities. -Mastering techniques of taking pnsoners, silently elimi- nating sentries, securing and transporting prisoners; -Developing skill in acting as a unit in attack groups and

capture groups;

-Building knowledge and skills to defeat an enemy m ~m- gle combat, without using firearms, utilizing sambo, boxmg, karate, and judo. Ways of achieving these goals are presented in Figure 4.

FIGURE 4. WAYS OF ACHIEVING THE GOALS OF SPECIAL PHYSICAL TRAINING

The teaching process in special physical training (SPT) encompasses planning material-technical assurance, physical conditioning to facilitate training, and periodically monitoring the speed of mastering the training course's content.

Planning is built on a foundation of directives from the highest administrative bodies.

Organization of the body of instruction takes into account trainees' specific activities:

• The tie between the training process and the nature of the trainees' future assignments • The systematization and regulation of the body of instruction

• The evenness of the distribution of physical demands in a week's course and

• The condition and level of physical development of the trainees, as well as their material-technical development

Instruction implies the regular transfer of knowledge to trainees, producing in them abilities and skills with the goal of developing and realizing their physical capabilities. Instruction, together with testing, is a unitary pedagogical process, which is founded on the following principles: • Party discipline and knowledge

• Consciousness

• Action

• Demonstrability

• Systematicness

• Gradualness and accessibility

• Lasting acquisition of knowledge

Party Discipline and Knowledge

This is realized in the process of continual clarification of those goals that trainees must attain after they have mastered the whole range of SPT methods and can utilize their latest technical accomplishments.

Consciousness This is made real on the basis of trainees understanding the necessity of mastering all means of SPT, a clear presentation of the exercises or activities and their effects on the human body. In consequence, there has to be development of an ability to analyze success and failure in performing exercises, activities, and techniques.

Action

This demands a clear explanation of the system of grading and encouragement to motivate the trainees, as well as in any independent training.

Demonstrability This is realized in two ways:

• Giving demonstrations with oral descriptions • Using obvious examples

Systematicness

This dictates a defmed system of instruction. New material must be a continuation of the old, and its use systematic. Material, therefore, should be arranged methodically and used that way for SPT.

Gradualness and Accessibility

.~is is realized in t.he results of [the trainees'] passage through

~ratmng, from the stmple to the complex, facing a gradual mcrease in physical training demands.

Lasting Acquisition of Knowledge

This means much repetition of the physical exercises in vari- ous combinations and circumstances, with obligatory verification and rating of the knowledge acquired.

. All the principles are valid in teaching because they are interlmked, and they manifest themselves in a single kind of training.

There are three groups of [teaching] methods:

• Oral-explaining and describing the body of drills and activities, meeting with participating trainees

• Demonstration-using visual or aural presentation, to include accurate illustrations, diagrams, and transparencies • Practical--encompassing various repetitions, i.e., exercises, all of one kind or different, in simplified conditions or difficult ones

Aside from these instruction methods, there are such methodological techniques as testing, mutual help, safety, and so on. Physical training instruction comprises a methodical sequence of stages.

First Stage: Familiarization The goal is to create the right presentation of exercises, activi- ties, and techniques. Here, this means clearly and briefly naming an exercise or technique, personally demonstrating it in full, describing its effects on the human body when it is performed (or adapted for practice), demonstrating it again (but a bit at a time), and, in passing, explaining the technical aspects slowly.

Second Stage: Learning

The goal is to shape the ability to perform techniques and actions. The whole [process] is accomplished, bit by bit, with the help of the trainees and their commanders. The instructor provides the trainees with the opportunity to slowly complete an exercise in its entirety, to work on it independently at a gradually increased pace, and, at the end, forces the trainees to perform in quick (military) time. In all this, good performance and mistakes are noted and ways to improve are laid out.

Third Stage: Training

The goal is to sharpen skills in performing exercises in varied circumstances. At this stage, the trainees perform exercises from different starting positions, while moving, or in combination with a mix of other exercises. Furthermore, the trainees carry out an exercise correctly and quickly in a competitive environment and combine the exercise with those learned earlier. The complete step-by-step process is presented in Figure 5. In the training-teaching process, the combined exercise method is preferred. Two or three parts of physical training (e.g., techniques of movement, getting by obstacles, or elements of

BRIEFLY AND MEANS: {1) AS A PERFORMING CLEARLY NAMING COMPLETE TECHNIQUES, ACTIVITIES, FUNCTION; {2) BY THE EXERCISES, ACTIONS TECHNIQUES, NUMBERS, IN VARIED STARTING EXERCISES. SEGMENTS; (3) WITH POSITIONS; IN DEMONSTRATE THEM EXERCISE LEADERS' COMPLEX CIRCUM-

FIGURE 5. PROGRESSIVE PROCESS OF TEACHING PHYSICAL EXERCISES

1 SKIING 5-KM. RUN 26MIN. 27MIN. 29MIN. WITH EQUIPMENT,

2 LIGHT 3-KM. RUN 13MIN. 14MIN. 15MIN. (6-7)KM.) ATHLETICS

3 POWER OVERHAND 8-7TIMES 7-6TIMES 5-4 TIMES (6-7 KM.) GYMNAS-GRIP

4 ROPE WITHOUT 5M. 4M. 3M. (6-7KM.) CLIMBING USING THE LEGS

5 OBSTACLE SERIES OF 4MIN. 4MIN. 5MIN. FOR THE

COURSE 14 OBSTACLES, 30SEC. FIRST

TRAPS OBSTACLE A 30-SECOND

6 THROWING FIELD DISTANCE: 5HITS 4HITS 3HITS EDGED/ 6 PACES, CHEST

7 FORCED MARCH IN A FLAK JACKET OR CARRYING 10 KILOS

8 COMBINES 5 (4) 4 (3) 3(2) IN GYM EXERCISES CLOTHES

TEST2

9 HAND-1. A DEMONSTRATION OF TECHNIQUES WITH ELEMENTS TO-HAND OF SPEED (A SPECIALIST DOING THE GRADING)

COMBAT 2. PERFORMANCE OF A NUMBER OF CONTACT MOVES AND DEFENSES (FIGURE 6)

3. TWO-MINUTE SPARRING MATCH*

TABLE 1. SAMPLE STANDARD REQUIREMENTS IN SPECIAL PHYSICAL TRAINING

S KILOMETERS 3.0

' ~ i\. ~ ~

'

. 2.5

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~,~ ~ .
~"'Il ~ .... . . ~
'',, I'~ ~ ~ ..
' ' '-·. ~ ~ -....
,,
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-.... 1-• ..
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25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 T,RUN

FIGURE 7. GRAPH OF THE NUMBER 1 RATINGS (12-MINUTE, NO-BREAK RUN)

Men Excellent ----Good

-• -Satisfactory

Women Excellent

••••••••••••••• Good -------------- Satisfactory

FIGURE 6. ELEMENTS OF ATTACK AND DEFENSE MOVES hand-to-hand combat) can be included in one mixed exercise.

Such an approach furthers the all-around physical development of armed forces personnel, inasmuch as the physical exertion involves the major muscle groups, the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems, and lifts the emotional state of the participants. The result of this activity is increased [physical] solidness and capacity for work demands. Going through the complex of training exercises makes easier a mastery of action skills for the trainees because of the frequent repetition of the skills in the course of training. The individual course segments can develop into a complete training cycle. Uncomplicated assignments/exercises (eight to ten at most) can be performed uninterruptedly, one after the other (stream method) with a minor break of thirty to ninety seconds (work-interval method). This ensures continuous effect on all major muscle groups and a healthy stress for the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. Especially beneficial exercises develop the physical qualities of speed, agility, endurance, and power. Along with this, personnel who undergo this physical training should demonstrate that they are achieving results conforming to

(Parte 7 de 8)

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