Halliday, Resnick, Walker - Fundamentals of Physics - 10th edition

Halliday, Resnick, Walker - Fundamentals of Physics - 10th edition

(Parte 1 de 8)

Quadratic Formula

If ,then

(x2 1)

Binomial Theorem

Products of Vectors

Letube the smaller of the two angles betweenand. Then

Trigonometric Identities ay by ay by az bz

Derivatives and Integrals

Cramer’s Rule Two simultaneous equations in unknowns xandy, have the solutions and cos xd x sin x d

Factor Prefix Symbol Factor Prefix Symbol

*In all cases,the first syllable is accented,as in ná-no-mé-ter.

This page intentionally left blank This page intentionally left blank

E X T END ED Halliday & Resnick

EXECUTIVE EDITOR Stuart Johnson SENIOR PRODUCT DESIGNER Geraldine Osnato CONTENT EDITOR Alyson Rentrop ASSOCIATE MARKETING DIRECTOR Christine Kushner TEXT and COVER DESIGNER Madelyn Lesure PAGE MAKE-UP Lee Goldstein PHOTO EDITOR Jennifer Atkins COPYEDITOR Helen Walden PROOFREADER Lilian Brady SENIOR PRODUCTION EDITOR Elizabeth Swain

COVER IMAGE © 2007 CERN

This book was set in 10/12 Times Ten by cMPreparé,CSR Francesca Monaco,and was printed and bound by Quad Graphics.The cover was printed by Quad Graphics.

Copyright © 2014,2011,2008,2005 John Wiley & Sons,Inc.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act,without either the prior written permission of the Publisher,or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center,Inc.2 Rosewood Drive, Danvers,MA 01923,website w.copyright.com.Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department,John Wiley & Sons,Inc.,1 River Street,Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774,(201)748-6011,fax (201)748-6008,or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions

Evaluation copies are provided to qualified academics and professionals for review purposes only, for use in their courses during the next academic year.These copies are licensed and may not be sold or transferred to a third party.Upon completion of the review period,please return the evaluation copy to Wiley.Return instructions and a free of charge return shipping label are available at w.wiley.com/go/returnlabel.Outside of the United States,please contact your local representative.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Walker, Jearl

Fundamentals of physics / Jearl Walker,David Halliday,Robert Resnick—10th edition. volumes cm

Includes index.

ISBN 978-1-118-23072-5 (Extended edition) Binder-ready version ISBN 978-1-118-23061-9 (Extended edition) 1. Physics—Textbooks. I. Resnick, Robert. I. Halliday, David. II.Title. QC21.3.H35 2014 530—dc23 2012035307

Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

18Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics

19The Kinetic Theory of Gases 20Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

V O L U M E 2 21Coulomb’s Law 22Electric Fields 23Gauss’ Law 24 Electric Potential 25 Capacitance 26Current and Resistance 27 Circuits 28Magnetic Fields 29Magnetic Fields Due to Currents 30Induction and Inductance

31Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

32Maxwell’s Equations; Magnetism of Matter 3 Electromagnetic Waves 34 Images 35 Interference 36 Diffraction 37 Relativity 38Photons and Matter Waves 39More About Matter Waves 40All About Atoms 41Conduction of Electricity in Solids 42Nuclear Physics 43Energy from the Nucleus 44Quarks, Leptons, and the Big Bang

Appendices / Answers to Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems / Index

1 Measurement 1

1-1MEASURING THINGS, INCLUDING LENGTHS1

What Is Physics?1 Measuring Things1 The International System of Units2 Changing Units3 Length 3 Significant Figures and Decimal Places4

REVIEW & SUMMARY8PROBLEMS8

2Motion Along a Straight Line13

2-1POSITION, DISPLACEMENT, AND AVERAGE VELOCITY13

What Is Physics?13 Motion 14 Position and Displacement14 Average Velocity and Average Speed15

2-2INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY AND SPEED18 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed18

2-3 ACCELERATION 20 Acceleration 20

2-4 CONSTANT ACCELERATION 23

Constant Acceleration: A Special Case23 Another Look at Constant Acceleration26

2-5 FREE-FALL ACCELERATION 27 Free-Fall Acceleration 27

2-6GRAPHICAL INTEGRATION IN MOTION ANALYSIS 29 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis29

REVIEW & SUMMARY30QUESTIONS31PROBLEMS32

3-1VECTORS AND THEIR COMPONENTS40

What Is Physics?40 Vectors and Scalars40 Adding Vectors Geometrically41 Components of Vectors42

3-2UNIT VECTORS, ADDING VECTORS BY COMPONENTS46 Unit Vectors46

Adding Vectors by Components46 Vectors and the Laws of Physics47

3-3MULTIPLYING VECTORS 50 Multiplying Vectors 50

REVIEW & SUMMARY55QUESTIONS56PROBLEMS57

4Motion in Two and Three Dimensions62

4-1POSITION AND DISPLACEMENT62

4-2AVERAGE VELOCITY AND INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY64 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity65

4-3AVERAGE ACCELERATION AND INSTANTANEOUS ACCELERATION67 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration68

4-4 PROJECTILE MOTION 70 Projectile Motion70

4-5UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION76 Uniform Circular Motion76

4-6RELATIVE MOTION IN ONE DIMENSION78 Relative Motion in One Dimension78

4-7RELATIVE MOTION IN TWO DIMENSIONS80 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions80

REVIEW & SUMMARY81QUESTIONS82PROBLEMS84

5Force and Motion—I94

5-1NEWTON’S FIRST AND SECOND LAWS94

What Is Physics?94 Newtonian Mechanics 95 Newton’s First Law95 Force 96 Mass 97 Newton’s Second Law98

5-2SOME PARTICULAR FORCES102 Some Particular Forces102

5-3APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS 106

Newton’s Third Law106 Applying Newton’s Laws108

REVIEW & SUMMARY 114 QUESTIONS 114 PROBLEMS 116 viiCONTENTS

6-1 FRICTION 124

6-2THE DRAG FORCE AND TERMINAL SPEED130 The Drag Force and Terminal Speed130

6-3UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION133 Uniform Circular Motion133

REVIEW & SUMMARY 138 QUESTIONS 139 PROBLEMS 140

7Kinetic Energy and Work149

7-1 KINETIC ENER GY 149

What Is Physics?149 What Is Energy?149 Kinetic Energy150

7-2WORK AND KINETIC ENERGY151

7-3WORK DONE BY THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE155 Work Done by the Gravitational Force156

7-4WORK DONE BY A SPRING FORCE159 Work Done by a Spring Force159

7-5WORK DONE BY A GENERAL VARIABLE FORCE162 Work Done by a General Variable Force162

REVIEW & SUMMARY 168 QUESTIONS 169 PROBLEMS 170

8Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy177

8-1 POTENTIAL ENER GY 177

8-2CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY184 Conservation of Mechanical Energy184

8-3READING A POTENTIAL ENERGY CURVE187 Reading a Potential Energy Curve187

8-4WORK DONE ON A SYSTEM BY AN EXTERNAL FORCE191 Work Done on a System by an External Force192

8-5CONSERVATION OF ENERGY195 Conservation of Energy195

REVIEW & SUMMARY 199 QUESTIONS 200 PROBLEMS 202

9-1CENTER OF MASS 214

9-2NEWTON’S SECOND LAW FOR A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES220 Newton’s Second Law for a System of Particles220

9-3 LINEAR MOMENTUM 224

Linear Momentum224 The Linear Momentum of a System of Particles225

9-4COLLISION AND IMPULSE226 Collision and Impulse226

9-5CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM230 Conservation of Linear Momentum230

9-6MOMENTUM AND KINETIC ENERGY IN COLLISIONS233

Momentum and Kinetic Energy in Collisions233 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension234

9-7ELASTIC COLLISIONS IN ONE DIMENSION237 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension237

9-8COLLISIONS IN TWO DIMENSIONS240 Collisions in Two Dimensions240

9-9SYSTEMS WITH VARYING MASS: A ROCKET241 Systems with Varying Mass: A Rocket241

REVIEW & SUMMARY 243 QUESTIONS 245 PROBLEMS 246

10-1 ROTATIONAL VARIABLES 257

What Is Physics?258 Rotational Variables 259 Are Angular Quantities Vectors?264

10-2ROTATION WITH CONSTANT ANGULAR ACCELERATION 266 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration266

10-3RELATING THE LINEAR AND ANGULAR VARIABLES268 Relating the Linear and Angular Variables268 viii CONTENTS

10-4KINETIC ENERGY OF ROTATION271 Kinetic Energy of Rotation271

10-5CALCULATING THE ROTATIONAL INERTIA273 Calculating the Rotational Inertia273

10-7NEWTON’S SECOND LAW FOR ROTATION279 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation279

10-8WORK AND ROTATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY282 Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy282

REVIEW & SUMMARY 285 QUESTIONS 286 PROBLEMS 287

1-1ROLLING AS TRANSLATION AND ROTATION COMBINED295

What Is Physics?295 Rolling as Translation and Rotation Combined295

1-2FORCES AND KINETIC ENERGY OF ROLLING298

1-6NEWTON’S SECOND LAW IN ANGULAR FORM307 Newton’s Second Law in Angular Form307

1-7ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A RIGID BODY310

1-8CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM312 Conservation of Angular Momentum312

REVIEW & SUMMARY 318 QUESTIONS 319 PROBLEMS 320

12-2SOME EXAMPLES OF STATIC EQUILIBRIUM332 Some Examples of Static Equilibrium332

REVIEW & SUMMARY 343 QUESTIONS 343 PROBLEMS 345

13 Gravitation 354

13-1NEWTON’S LAW OF GRAVITATION354

What Is Physics?354 Newton’s Law of Gravitation355

13-2GRAVITATION AND THE PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION 357 Gravitation and the Principle of Superposition357

13-3GRAVITATION NEAR EARTH’S SURFACE359 Gravitation Near Earth’s Surface360

13-4GRAVITATION INSIDE EARTH362 Gravitation Inside Earth363

13-5GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY364 Gravitational Potential Energy364

13-6PLANETS AND SATELLITES: KEPLER’S LAWS368 Planets and Satellites: Kepler’s Laws369

13-7SATELLITES: ORBITS AND ENERGY371 Satellites: Orbits and Energy371

13-8EINSTEIN AND GRAVITATION374 Einstein and Gravitation374

REVIEW & SUMMARY 376 QUESTIONS 377 PROBLEMS 378

14-1FLUIDS, DENSITY, AND PRESSURE386

What Is Physics?386 What Is a Fluid?386 Density and Pressure387

14-2FLUIDS AT REST388 Fluids at Rest389

14-3 MEASURING PRESSURE 392 Measuring Pressure 392 ixCONTENTS

14-4 PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE 393 Pascal’s Principle 393

14-6THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY398

14-7 BERNOULLI’S EQUATION 401 Bernoulli’s Equation 401

REVIEW & SUMMARY 405 QUESTIONS 405 PROBLEMS 406

15-1SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION413

What Is Physics?414 Simple Harmonic Motion414 The Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion419

15-2ENERGY IN SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION421 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion421

15-3AN ANGULAR SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR423 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator423

15-4PENDULUMS, CIRCULAR MOTION424

15-5DAMPED SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION430 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion430

15-6FORCED OSCILLATIONS AND RESONANCE432 Forced Oscillations and Resonance432

REVIEW & SUMMARY 434 QUESTIONS 434 PROBLEMS 436

16-1 TRANSVERSE WAVES 4

What Is Physics?445 Types of Waves445 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves445 Wavelength and Frequency446 The Speed of a Traveling Wave449

16-2WAVE SPEED ON A STRETCHED STRING452 Wave Speed on a Stretched String452

16-3ENERGY AND POWER OF A WAVE TRAVELING ALONG A STRING454

Energy and Power of a Wave Traveling Along a String454

16-4THE WAVE EQUATION456 The Wave Equation456

16-5INTERFERENCE OF WAVES458

The Principle of Superposition for Waves458 Interference of Waves459

16-7STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE465

Standing Waves465 Standing Waves and Resonance467

REVIEW & SUMMARY 470 QUESTIONS 471 PROBLEMS 472

17-2TRAVELING SOUND WAVES482 Traveling Sound Waves482

17-3 INTERFERENCE 485 Interference 485

17-4INTENSITY AND SOUND LEVEL488 Intensity and Sound Level489

17-5SOURCES OF MUSICAL SOUND492 Sources of Musical Sound493

17-7THE DOPPLER EFFECT498 The Doppler Effect499

17-8SUPERSONIC SPEEDS, SHOCK WAVES503 Supersonic Speeds, Shock Waves503

REVIEW & SUMMARY 504 QUESTIONS 505 PROBLEMS 506

18Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics514

18-2THE CELSIUS AND FAHRENHEIT SCALES518 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales518 x CONTENTS

18-3 THERMAL EXPANSION 520 Thermal Expansion 520

18-4ABSORPTION OF HEAT522

18-5THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS528

A Closer Look at Heat and Work528 The First Law of Thermodynamics531

Some Special Cases of the First Law of Thermodynamics 532

18-6HEAT TRANSFER MECHANISMS534 Heat Transfer Mechanisms534

REVIEW & SUMMARY 538 QUESTIONS 540 PROBLEMS 541

19The Kinetic Theory of Gases549

19-1 AVOGADRO’S NUMBER 549

19-3PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, AND RMS SPEED554 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed554

19-4TRANSLATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY557 Translational Kinetic Energy557

19-5MEAN FREE PATH558 Mean Free Path558

19-6THE DISTRIBUTION OF MOLECULAR SPEEDS560 The Distribution of Molecular Speeds561

19-7THE MOLAR SPECIFIC HEATS OF AN IDEAL GAS564 The Molar Specific Heats of an Ideal Gas564

19-8DEGREES OF FREEDOM AND MOLAR SPECIFIC HEATS568

19-9THE ADIABATIC EXPANSION OF AN IDEAL GAS571 The Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas571

REVIEW & SUMMARY 575 QUESTIONS 576 PROBLEMS 577

20Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics583

What Is Physics?584 Irreversible Processes and Entropy584

20-2ENTROPY IN THE REAL WORLD: ENGINES590 Entropy in the Real World: Engines590

20-3REFRIGERATORS AND REAL ENGINES595

20-4A STATISTICAL VIEW OF ENTROPY598 A Statistical View of Entropy598

REVIEW & SUMMARY 602 QUESTIONS 603 PROBLEMS 604

21-1 COULOMB’S LAW 609

What Is Physics?610 Electric Charge610 Conductors and Insulators612 Coulomb’s Law613

21-2CHARGE IS QUANTIZED619 Charge Is Quantized619

21-3CHARGE IS CONSERVED621 Charge Is Conserved 621

REVIEW & SUMMARY 622 QUESTIONS 623 PROBLEMS 624

2-1THE ELECTRIC FIELD630

2-2THE ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A CHARGED PARTICLE633 The Electric Field Due to a Point Charge633

2-3THE ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A DIPOLE 635 The Electric Field Due to an Electric Dipole636

2-4THE ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A LINE OF CHARGE638 The Electric Field Due to Line of Charge638

2-5THE ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A CHARGED DISK643 The Electric Field Due to a Charged Disk643

2-6A POINT CHARGE IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD645 A Point Charge in an Electric Field645

2-7A DIPOLE IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD647 A Dipole in an Electric Field648

REVIEW & SUMMARY 650 QUESTIONS 651 PROBLEMS 652 xiCONTENTS

23-1 ELECTRIC FLUX 659

What Is Physics659 Electric Flux660

23-3A CHARGED ISOLATED CONDUCTOR668 A Charged Isolated Conductor668

23-4APPLYING GAUSS’ LAW: CYLINDRICAL SYMMETRY671 Applying Gauss’ Law: Cylindrical Symmetry671

23-5APPLYING GAUSS’ LAW: PLANAR SYMMETRY673 Applying Gauss’ Law: Planar Symmetry673

23-6APPLYING GAUSS’ LAW: SPHERICAL SYMMETRY675 Applying Gauss’ Law: Spherical Symmetry675

REVIEW & SUMMARY 677 QUESTIONS 677 PROBLEMS 679

24-1 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 685

What Is Physics?685 Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy686

24-2EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES AND THE ELECTRIC FIELD690

Equipotential Surfaces 690 Calculating the Potential from the Field691

24-3POTENTIAL DUE TO A CHARGED PARTICLE694

Potential Due to a Charged Particle694 Potential Due a Group of Charged Particles695

24-4POTENTIAL DUE TO AN ELECTRIC DIPOLE697 Potential Due to an Electric Dipole697

24-5POTENTIAL DUE TO A CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION698 Potential Due to a Continuous Charge Distribution698

24-6CALCULATING THE FIELD FROM THE POTENTIAL701 Calculating the Field from the Potential701

24-7ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A SYSTEM OF CHARGED PARTICLES 703

Electric Potential Energy of a System of Charged Particles703

24-8POTENTIAL OF A CHARGED ISOLATED CONDUCTOR706 Potential of Charged Isolated Conductor706

REVIEW & SUMMARY 707 QUESTIONS 708 PROBLEMS 710

25-2CALCULATING THE CAPACITANCE719 Calculating the Capacitance720

25-3CAPACITORS IN PARALLEL AND IN SERIES723 Capacitors in Parallel and in Series 724

25-4ENERGY STORED IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD728 Energy Stored in an Electric Field728

25-5CAPACITOR WITH A DIELECTRIC731

25-6DIELECTRICS AND GAUSS’ LAW735 Dielectrics and Gauss’ Law735

REVIEW & SUMMARY 738 QUESTIONS 738 PROBLEMS 739

(Parte 1 de 8)

Comentários