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$4-50 In almost every respect CommunistChina has been following the path of theSoviet Union under Stalin. The copyingof Soviet experience has been so thoroughthat it has done much to destroy the rootsof traditional Chinese civilization. Inthis book Richard Walker draws a strik-ing picture of what is happening to thepeople of China today, to workers andpeasants, teachers and businessmen. Hedescribes the systematic attempts to de-stroy the family unit and develop com-plete psychological control as a new di-mension of political power. Quoting ex-tensively from Communist sources, hereveals the extent to which China fol-lows the Soviet system five-year plan,collectivization, Stalinist constitution,slavelabor, worker regimentation, purge ofintellectuals, secret police, imperialism,and the reliance on armed might. Thisdocumented study shows in detail the in-ner workings of the despotism that hasruled China for the past five years. Muchof its information has never before beenmade available to the American public.Richard L. Walker is assistant professorof history at Yale.The special illustration section reproducesfaithfully comic books and posters usedin Chinese propaganda.

KANSAS CITY, MO PUBLIC LIBRARYD DDD1 DBSTSID ^ KANSAS CITY, MO PUBLIC LIBRARYD DDD1 DBSTSID ^

951 05 W18cWalkerChina 951 05 W18cWalkerChina

NA UNDERCHICOMMUNISMTHE FIRST FIVE YEARSby RICHARD L. WALKER New Haven: YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1955

Copyright, 795, by Yale University Press.Printed in the United States of America byVail-Ballou Press, Inc., Binghamton, N.Y,All rights reserved. This book may not bereproduced, in whole or in part, in any form(except by reviewers for the public press),without written permission from the publishers.Library of Congress catalog card number: 5-6422 Copyright, 795, by Yale University Press.Printed in the United States of America byVail-Ballou Press, Inc., Binghamton, N.Y,All rights reserved. This book may not bereproduced, in whole or in part, in any form(except by reviewers for the public press),without written permission from the publishers.Library of Congress catalog card number: 5-6422 to CELENO, ANNE, GEOFFREY, and BRADLEYwho sacrificed so much to enable me to tell otherswhat I believe is an important story. to CELENO, ANNE, GEOFFREY, and BRADLEYwho sacrificed so much to enable me to tell otherswhat I believe is an important story.

CONTENTSIntroduction ix1. Five Years of Communism in China 12. How China Is Ruled 243. Psychological Control 504. The Role of the Drive 77It/Economic Control 1016. The Peasants 1287. The Workers 1548. Culture and the Intellectuals 1779. Terror 21410. The Conduct of Foreign Relations JJ13,1. China and the Soviet Union 2712. China and the United States ,3013. The Challenge of Communist China 322Bibliographic Note 329Notes 337Index 389ILLUSTRATIONSChains of Command in Communist China 27A Selection of Posters and Comic Booksfollowing 198 vii

INTRODUCTION It Is obviously impossible to compress all the complicated and di-verse events of the first five years of Communist rule in mainlandChina into a single volume. Further, most historians would rightlyaffirm that we are much too close to those events to be able towrite about them with either perspective or balance. Yet whathas happened to China and to the Chinese people is of such im-portance for all men everywhere that some attempt must bemade to tell the story in broad outline, and much of the outlineis already clear. The whole of Chinese society together with itslong cultural traditions and great legacy of art and learning isbeing systematically transformed into a modern totalitarian statein which human values are subordinated to a mechanistic philoso-phy which holds that economic environment and economicallydetermined class relationships are solely responsible for man'sthought patterns and concepts of truth.Because all the great changes in China from 1949 to 1954 can-not be covered exhaustively, I have felt it advisable to concentrateon a few key areas where the apeing of the Soviet "big brother"can be brought clearly into focus and which can serve as an indi-cation of the direction in which the Chinese people are beingpushed by their new masters. In almost every case the parallelwith the Soviet experience is too obvious to necessitate callingattention to it. Mao Tse-lung and the Chinese Communist partymake no secret of their intentions to follow the path blazed by theUSSR under Stalin as closely as conditions in China permit, beingsure, of course, to avoid some of the Soviet mistakes which laterhad to be rectified. In this way they believe they can swiftly trans-form China into an industrialized nation which can be a co-partner with the Soviet Union in bringing about a Communistvictory throughout the world. They believe that the pace in Chinacan be faster because of the advantage of the Soviet experience

X CHINA UNDER COMMUNISMand the aid of the advanced technicians from the "socialist" centerof the world.As was the case in Russia, China's masters are not concernedabout the price of their plans in human terms. Nor do they seemto entertain any notion that some of their plans could be moreeffectively accomplished by other means. Their rigid adherenceto the Moscow party line permits of no such deviations. They arefanatically determined to superimpose upon the Chinese peoplethe blueprint which they have worked out after deep study of theRussian experience of the last thirty-five years, and close coopera-tion with the leaders of world Communism in Moscow.China has thus become a test case of whether the Soviet ex-perience in organizing and controlling people under a vast bu-reaucratic regime can be successfully employed in areas of cul-tural experience far different from Russia, and in particular ineconomically underdeveloped areas. If the Communist regimesucceeds in China and the facts brought out in this volume indi-cate that it is succeeding admirably in some respects then,the leaders of world Communism feel, they can be optimisticabout the eventual victory of the Soviet way of life over theworld.This is one of the reasons why the events in China over thepast few years are of utmost importance. The results are beingwatched eagerly by other people, especially the Indians. The suc-cessful creation of a world power center in China holds potentiali-ties for swinging them over to the Communist camp. There arealready indications that some Indians, whose standard of livingprevents them from being overly concerned about the inhumanityof Communist transformation, are already favorably impressedby what they believe to be the efficiency and large-scale planningof the Mao regime.China is a far-off place for us, and except for an emotionalattachment to some aspects of the traditional Chinese culture,people in the West are little concerned about what happens there.Despite our experiences in World War I, we still tend to measure X CHINA UNDER COMMUNISMand the aid of the advanced technicians from the "socialist" centerof the world.As was the case in Russia, China's masters are not concernedabout the price of their plans in human terms. Nor do they seemto entertain any notion that some of their plans could be moreeffectively accomplished by other means. Their rigid adherenceto the Moscow party line permits of no such deviations. They arefanatically determined to superimpose upon the Chinese peoplethe blueprint which they have worked out after deep study of theRussian experience of the last thirty-five years, and close coopera-tion with the leaders of world Communism in Moscow.China has thus become a test case of whether the Soviet ex-perience in organizing and controlling people under a vast bu-reaucratic regime can be successfully employed in areas of cul-tural experience far different from Russia, and in particular ineconomically underdeveloped areas. If the Communist regimesucceeds in China and the facts brought out in this volume indi-cate that it is succeeding admirably in some respects then,the leaders of world Communism feel, they can be optimisticabout the eventual victory of the Soviet way of life over theworld.This is one of the reasons why the events in China over thepast few years are of utmost importance. The results are beingwatched eagerly by other people, especially the Indians. The suc-cessful creation of a world power center in China holds potentiali-ties for swinging them over to the Communist camp. There arealready indications that some Indians, whose standard of livingprevents them from being overly concerned about the inhumanityof Communist transformation, are already favorably impressedby what they believe to be the efficiency and large-scale planningof the Mao regime.China is a far-off place for us, and except for an emotionalattachment to some aspects of the traditional Chinese culture,people in the West are little concerned about what happens there.Despite our experiences in World War I, we still tend to measure

INTRODUCTION XIworld events in terms of what takes place in Europe. The culturalroots of the United States lie in Europe, and this fact more thanany other prevents the formulation of a truly global foreign policyby administrations Republican or Democratic. Thus, although thelessons to be learned from the experiences of China under a Sovietregime are global lessons, as are those of the satellites in Europe,it is probable that the former will be considered only as theyaffect the Far Eastern policy of the United States. Given theworld-wide ambitions of international Communism, that wouldindeed be tragic.The geographical and cultural distance of China from the Westalso prevents a close following of developments there. Hencemany of the individual changes wrought by the Communist mas-ters have escaped our attention and much of their over-all signifi-cance has been lost. To some Western businessmen China Is stillthe China of former years, and they continue to hope that as soonas the "current crisis" has passed they can once again carry onbusiness there in the traditional manner. To some diplomatsChina's foreign relations are still to be understood for the mostpart in terms of the traditional Western protocol. Again, forsome Western scholars China is still the Middle Kingdom whosepresent is to be understood almost exclusively in terms of theChinese traditional past.But China is no longer the China of even five years ago. Thechanges carried out by the Communists make it impossible forfuture dealings ever to be carried out on the same business basisor for Western style diplomacy to prove effective in dealing withthe regime there. Students can no longer be expected to drawaccurate conclusions on the basis of a preponderant reliance onknowledge of the former Chinese culture. The entire Chinese pat-tern of life cannot be altered completely in so short a time, butthe changes under the Communists have already gone deepenough at least to modify such traditional patterns as remain.With the passing years the modifications will increase, and special-ists on Communism, not Sinologists, will be better qualified to INTRODUCTION XIworld events in terms of what takes place in Europe. The culturalroots of the United States lie in Europe, and this fact more thanany other prevents the formulation of a truly global foreign policyby administrations Republican or Democratic. Thus, although thelessons to be learned from the experiences of China under a Sovietregime are global lessons, as are those of the satellites in Europe,it is probable that the former will be considered only as theyaffect the Far Eastern policy of the United States. Given theworld-wide ambitions of international Communism, that wouldindeed be tragic.The geographical and cultural distance of China from the Westalso prevents a close following of developments there. Hencemany of the individual changes wrought by the Communist mas-ters have escaped our attention and much of their over-all signifi-cance has been lost. To some Western businessmen China Is stillthe China of former years, and they continue to hope that as soonas the "current crisis" has passed they can once again carry onbusiness there in the traditional manner. To some diplomatsChina's foreign relations are still to be understood for the mostpart in terms of the traditional Western protocol. Again, forsome Western scholars China is still the Middle Kingdom whosepresent is to be understood almost exclusively in terms of theChinese traditional past.But China is no longer the China of even five years ago. Thechanges carried out by the Communists make it impossible forfuture dealings ever to be carried out on the same business basisor for Western style diplomacy to prove effective in dealing withthe regime there. Students can no longer be expected to drawaccurate conclusions on the basis of a preponderant reliance onknowledge of the former Chinese culture. The entire Chinese pat-tern of life cannot be altered completely in so short a time, butthe changes under the Communists have already gone deepenough at least to modify such traditional patterns as remain.With the passing years the modifications will increase, and special-ists on Communism, not Sinologists, will be better qualified to

Xii CHINA UNDER COMMUNISManalyze events within the land which once hailed Confucius asits great teacher.It is important to understand that the changes brought aboutby the Communists reach far down into the thought patternsand speech habits of the people. New terms have been introduced,and the Chinese Communist intelligentsia phrase and reordertheir thoughts in these terms as the former Confucian gentrymolded traditional Chinese thought patterns and speech habitswith a specialized set of terms. For this reason it is possible thatthe Chinese of 1960 may well seem "inscrutable" to a fellowcountryman who left his country in 1940. Indeed the Chineserefugee of the 1940's may become as ill equipped to explain hiscountry to the outside world as the White Russian refugee of the1920's is to explain the Soviet Union of today.Let us hope this may prove to be exaggeration. Underestimat-ing the extent of the transformation would be to err far moregravely. To deal with the current regime in China in terms offormer ideas and a static interpretation of Chinese social patternswould be wholly unrealistic. For this reason I have tried to selectsome aspects of the Communist rule which will point up the man-ner in which all social life in mainland China is being permeatedby the philosophy and values of the Soviet system.The cost of the tremendous task of remaking China in theSoviet image has been unbelievable in terms both of human andof cultural destruction. It is for this reason that many feel sucha regime can never survive for long. Yet it must be rememberedthat the very changes already accomplished testify to the ruthlessefficiency and the techniques of control developed by the Com-munists. The manner in which they have reorganized patterns ofthought and conduct within the area of their control in itselfgives great staying power to their regime. Thus while many resi-dents of the Middle Kingdom, and especially the older ones, mayrealize that they have been subjected to a form of exploitationand oppression harsher than their country has ever known, thesepeople are rapidly being eliminated and replaced by a generation Xii CHINA UNDER COMMUNISManalyze events within the land which once hailed Confucius asits great teacher.It is important to understand that the changes brought aboutby the Communists reach far down into the thought patternsand speech habits of the people. New terms have been introduced,and the Chinese Communist intelligentsia phrase and reordertheir thoughts in these terms as the former Confucian gentrymolded traditional Chinese thought patterns and speech habitswith a specialized set of terms. For this reason it is possible thatthe Chinese of 1960 may well seem "inscrutable" to a fellowcountryman who left his country in 1940. Indeed the Chineserefugee of the 1940's may become as ill equipped to explain hiscountry to the outside world as the White Russian refugee of the1920's is to explain the Soviet Union of today.Let us hope this may prove to be exaggeration. Underestimat-ing the extent of the transformation would be to err far moregravely. To deal with the current regime in China in terms offormer ideas and a static interpretation of Chinese social patternswould be wholly unrealistic. For this reason I have tried to selectsome aspects of the Communist rule which will point up the man-ner in which all social life in mainland China is being permeatedby the philosophy and values of the Soviet system.The cost of the tremendous task of remaking China in theSoviet image has been unbelievable in terms both of human andof cultural destruction. It is for this reason that many feel sucha regime can never survive for long. Yet it must be rememberedthat the very changes already accomplished testify to the ruthlessefficiency and the techniques of control developed by the Com-munists. The manner in which they have reorganized patterns ofthought and conduct within the area of their control in itselfgives great staying power to their regime. Thus while many resi-dents of the Middle Kingdom, and especially the older ones, mayrealize that they have been subjected to a form of exploitationand oppression harsher than their country has ever known, thesepeople are rapidly being eliminated and replaced by a generation

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