(Parte 1 de 6)

Harpal S. Mavi, PhD Graeme J. Tupper, MAgSc, DipEd

Agr ometeor ology

Principles and Applications of Climate Studies in Agriculture


Pr e-publication REVIEWS, COMMENT ARIES,

“M avi and Tupper ar eto be con- gratulated for pr oducing a very wide-ranging book that delivers an information-rich overview of applications and contemporary issues faced by agr ometeor ology . They have focused on the explanation and application of principles, often thr ough the pr esentation of real and practical examples, ren - dering the contents accessible to a br oad audience. This book should pr ove a useful refer ence, particularly for spe - cialists fr om aligned disciplines and university students undertaking agri - cultur e-r elated courses.”

Stephen Lellyett Deputy Regional Director NSW, Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, Darlinghurst, Australia

“T his book will be of gr eat help to students, scientists, and resear ch workers. It pr ovides vast information on the importance, availability , and general use of meteor ological data/services in connection with the planning of agricultural investment and development pr ojects. The authors have done a commendable job by collecting the latest information on existing meteor ological scenarios for pr oject implemen - tation as well as for futur e planning concerning additional investment in development pr ojects. Many books and journals contain fragmented informa - tion on these topics but the authors of this book have pr esented all the infor - mation under one umbrella.”

G. S. Bains, PhD Professor of Agrometeorology, College of Agriculture, Punjab Agricultural University, India


Mor e pr e-publication

“T he vagaries of the weather im- pact gr eatly on mankind, affect - ing our health, temperament, and living standar ds. Mavi and Tupper have as - sembled a gr eat deal of useful informa - tion to help readers better understand how weather and climate impact on farming systems and influence cr op and pastur e yields and livestock pr oduc - tion. The book is replete with inter est - ing examples and case studies to show how better knowledge of agr ometeo - rology and better access to climate recor ds, short-term weather for ecasts, and seasonal outlooks can impr ove strate - gic and tactical decision making on farms—ther eby enabling managers to incr ease the pr oductivity , sustainability , and financial viability of their agricultural systems. Valuable insights ar e pr ovided into how climate change is likely to impact on dif fer ent regions thr oughout the world, and how the impacts of such change may be reduced. This publication will be valued by farmers, students, scientists, policymakers, and rural and urban commu - nities in developed and developing countries throughout the world.”

David H. White, PhD Director, ASIT Consulting, Canberra, Australia

“T his book is a welcome and neces- sary addition to keep those in - volved in agricultur e and other related industries up-to-date with climate sci - ence developments and their applica - tions. The major str ength of this book is that it brings together principles that ar e globally relevant with the latest sci - entific literatur e on subjects that in - clude agr ometeor ology , the use of cli - mate information in agricultur e, solar radiation and its role in plant gr owth, envir onmental temperatur e and cr op pr oduction, and climatological meth - ods for managing farm water resour ces. Irecommend this book to edu - cators and those with an inter est in applied climate science and agricul - tur e.”

David George, BSc, GDipEd, MAppSc Scientist (climate applications and education), Queensland Department of Primary Industries

“T his compr ehensive book meets an incr easing need for those inter ested in climate and weather ,such as agricultural resear chers, advisors, and policymakers. The authors use their international experience to apply the principles of climate and plant science to practical management of agricul - tural systems—fr om the policy issue of dr ought assistance to managing pests in the field. The principles of agr ome - teor ology have never been mor e im - portant as we manage agricultur ethat is pr oductive and sustainable in a vari - able and changing climate. This book is valuable not only as a university text but also as a useful refer ence text for pr ofessionals involved in the interface between climate and agriculture.”

Peter Hayman, PhD Coordinator, Climate Applications, NSW Agriculture, Tamworth, Australia


Mor e pr e-publication

“A gr ometeor ology is mor e in de- mand than ever , and this book will be an important resour ce for ques - tions on how climate and weather im - pact on agricultural pr oduction. The authors have used their extensive expe - rience to harvest examples and extract principles acr oss a diverse but repr esentative range of agricultural pr oduc - tion systems. Thr ough an inter disciplin - ary perspective, they have achieved a very useful distillation of principles by reviewing applications in agricultural management. The eleven chapters in - clude thor ough reviews on how climate and weather determine effective rainfall, on dr ought , climate change, and on the incidence of many pests and parasites. The book’s focus is on analysis and applications, and it is a valuable resour ce for both students and managers.”

Barry J. White, PhD National Coordinator (Climate Variability R&D Program), Land & Water Australia

“T his book pr ovides a wide variety of perspectives and extensive ex - amples of tools and pr ocedur es to man - age and make the most of both shortterm weather and longer -term climate variability . This very readable book should be useful to a br oad range of practitioners fr om farmers to resear ch scientists.”

Mary Voice, MSc, GrCert Principal, Cumulus Consulting, Lecturer, La Trobe University

Food Products Press®

An Imprint of The Haworth Press, Inc. New York • London • Oxford

This is an original book title published by Food Products Press®, an imprint of The Ha worth Press, Inc. Unless otherwise noted in specif ic chapters with attrib ution, materials in this book ha ve not been pre viously published elsewhere in any format or language.

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Principles and Applications of Climate Studies in Agriculture

Crop Science

Amarjit S. Basra, PhD Senior Editor

Heterosis and Hybrid Seed Production in Agronomic Cropsedited by Amarjit S. Basra

Intensive Cropping: Efficient Use of Water, Nutrients, and Tillageby S. S. Prihar, P. R. Gajri, D. K. Benbi, and V. K. Arora

Physiological Bases for Maize Improvementedited by María E. Otegui and Gustavo A. Slafer

Plant Growth Regulators in Agriculture and Horticulture: Their Role and Commercial Usesedited by Amarjit S. Basra

Crop Responses and Adaptations to Temperature Stressedited by Amarjit S. Basra Plant Viruses As Molecular Pathogensby Jawaid A. Khan and Jeanne Dijkstra In Vitro Plant Breedingby Acram Taji, Prakash P. Kumar, and Prakash Lakshmanan Crop Improvement: Challenges in the Twenty-First Centuryedited by Manjit S. Kang

Barley Science: Recent Advances from Molecular Biology to Agronomy of Yield and Qualityedited by Gustavo A. Slafer, José Luis Molina-Cano, Roxana Savin, José Luis Araus, and Ignacio Romagosa

Tillage for Sustainable Croppingby P. R. Gajri, V. K. Arora, and S. S. Prihar

Bacterial Disease Resistance in Plants: Molecular Biology and Biotechnological Applicationsby P. Vidhyasekaran

Handbook of Formulas and Software for Plant Geneticists and Breedersedited by Manjit S. Kang

Postharvest Oxidative Stress in Horticultural Cropsedited by D. M. Hodges Encyclopedic Dictionary of Plant Br eeding and Related Subjects by Rolf H. G. Schle gel

Handbook of Processes and Modeling in the Soil-Plant Systemedited by D. K. Benbi and R. Nieder

The Lowland Maya Area: Three Millennia at the Human-Wildland Interfaceedited by A. Gómez-Pompa, M. F. Allen, S. Fedick, and J. J. Jiménez-Osornio

Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems, Second Editionby Miguel A. Altieri and Clara I. Nicholls

Plant-Derived Antimycotics: Current Trends and Future Prospectsedited by Mahendra Rai and Donatella Mares

Concise Encyclopedia of Temperate Tree Fruitedited by Tara Auxt Baugher and Suman Singha

Landscape Agroecologyby Paul A. Wojkowski Concise Encyclopedia of Plant Pathologyby P. Vidhyasekaran Testing of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foodsedited by Farid E. Ahmed Concise Encyclopedia of Bioresource Technologyedited by Ashok Pandey

Agrometeorology: Principles and Applications of Climate Studies in Agricultureby Harpal S. Mavi and Graeme J. Tupper


Principles and Applications of Climate Studies in Agriculture

Harpal S. Mavi, PhD Graeme J. Tupper, MAgSc, DipEd

Food Products Press®

An Imprint of The Haworth Press, Inc. New York • London • Oxford

Published by

Food Products Press®, an imprint of The Haworth Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.

©2004 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilm, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

Cover design by Jennifer M. Gaska.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Mavi, H. S. (Harpal Singh), 1935-

Agrometeorology : principles and applications of climate studies in agriculture / Harpal Mavi,

Graeme J. Tupper. p. cm.

Includes bibilographical references (p. ) and index. ISBN 1-56022-972-1 (hard : alk. paper) 1. Meteorology, Agricultural. I. Tupper, Graeme, J. I. Title.

S600.5.M38 2004 630'.2515—dc21

Pr eface ix Ackno wledgments xi

Chapter 1. Agrometeorology: Perspectives and Applications1

Def inition 1 A Holistic Science1 Scope 2 Practical Utility3 Chronology of Developments5 Future Needs8

Chapter 2. Solar Radiation and Its Role in Plant Growth13

The Sun: The Source of Energy13 Nature and Laws of Radiation16 Earth’s Annual Global Mean Radiative Energy Budget18 Solar Radiation and Crop Plants25 Solar Radiation Interception by Plants30 Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)36 Solar Radiation Use Efficiency38

Chapter 3. Environmental Temperature and Crop Pr oduction 43

Soil Temperature43 Air Temperature47 Plant Injury Due to Sudden Changes in Temperature50 Frost: Damage and Control55 Thermoperiodism 64 Temperature As a Measure of Plant Growth and Development66

Chapter 4. Climatological Methods for Managing Farm Water Resources69

Water for Crop Production69 Making Effective Use of Rainfall70 Evaporation and Evapotranspiration76 Water Use and Loss in Irrigation84

Climatological Information in Improving

Water-Use Efficiency (WUE)85 Reducing Water Losses from Reservoirs91

Chapter 5. Drought Monitoring and Planning for Mitigation95

Definition of Drought96 Meteorological Indicators of Drought96 Drought Monitoring in Australia105 Drought Exceptional Circumstances108 Overview of Drought Assessment Methods113 Meeting the Challenge: A Drought Mitigation Plan115 Desertif ication 119

Chapter 6. Climate, Crop Pests, and Parasites of Animals123

Role of Weather and Climate123 Some Important Insect Pests of Crop Plants130 Climate and Parasites of Animals136 Helminth P arasites 136 Arthropod P arasites 138

Chapter 7. Remote-Sensing Applications in Agr ometeor ology 145

Spatial Information and the Environment145 Remote Sensing146 Remote Sensors and Instruments149 Image Acquisition 152 Satellite Orbits for Remote Sensing158 Geographic Information System (GIS)159 Global Positioning System (GPS)160 Remote-Sensing Applications 161

Chapter 8. Role of Computer Models in Managing Agricultural Systems 179

Modeling Biological Response to Weather Conditions179 Models 180 Applications of Crop Models182 Simulation Models Relevant to Australian Farming

Systems 187 Decision Support Systems (DSS)187

Chapter 9. Agroclimatological Services209

Weather and Agriculture209 Weather and Climate Forecasting209 Tailoring Climate Information for Agriculture211 Impacts of Weather on Specific Industries and the Role of Forecast Information212

Agroclimatological Information Services in Australia214 Use and Benefits of Climate Forecast Information217 Toward Optimum Utilization of Climate Information and Forecast Products220

Chapter 10. Using Climate Information to Improve Agricultural Systems 237

Setting the Platform—Property Planning238 Sustainable Production—Setting the Enterprise Mix and Production Levels240

Making Efficient Use of Rainfall242 De veloping Resilience 252 Managing the Extremes—Droughts and Floods254 The Decision-Making Process—Dealing with Risk and Complexity256

Providing Climate Technology to Farmers256 Communicating New Ideas and Practices— Creating Change Through Adult Learning258

Chapter 1. Climate Change and Its Impact on Agriculture263

Climate Variability and Climate Change263 Observed Change in Atmospheric Composition and Climate267

Observed Impact of Climate Change272 Future Scenarios of Climate Change275 Impact of Climate Change on Hydrology and Water

Resources 277

Impact of Climate Change on Crops282 Impact of Climate Change on Livestock286

Refer ences 291 Author Index339 Subject Index351

Dr. Har pal S. Ma vi is a climate risk management consultant in Syd - ne y, Australia. His work in volv es research in climate impacts on crops, insect-pests and crop diseases, and strate gies for climaterelated risk management. Before going into consultanc yservices, he was an agroclimatologist in the Ne w South Wales Department of Ag - riculture. Earlier , he was Professor of Agrometeorology at Punjab Agricultural Uni versity in India where he taught climatology and agrometeorology for over tw o decades. Dr. Ma vi has been the re - search supervisor of twenty postgraduate students majoring in agrometeorology . In addition, he has been on the research advisory committee of scores of students majoring in agronomy , soil science, soil and water engineering, entomology , plant pathology , and botan y. He has advised numerous indi viduals and or ganizations in climate-related risk management.

Mr. Graeme J. Tupper is Technical Specialist, Resource Information, in the NSW Department of Agriculture, Australia. His work in - volv es research, de velopment, and service projects in the application of spatial information technology to agriculture. Specif ic projects include monthly rainf all “drought” mapping, fire and flood mapping and monitoring, monitoring endemic li vestock diseases, weed detection and mapping research, and water reform structural adjustment mapping. Mr. Tupper is an agricultural scientist and has work ed in this capacity in research, academic, and extension institutions in Aus - tralia, Papua Ne w Guinea, South Africa, and the United States, in en - vironments ranging from semi-arid rangelands through temperate to tropical agriculture.

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