Cysts of the Oral and Maxillofacial Regions (Fourth Edition)

Cysts of the Oral and Maxillofacial Regions (Fourth Edition)

(Parte 1 de 13)

AgNORs, see ‘keratocyst’, 45, 48, 49 allergy, mucosal cyst of maxillary sinus, 164 ameloblastic fibroma in calcifying odontogenic cyst, 101, 104 ameloblastic fibro-odontome in calcifying odontogenic cyst, 101, 104 ameloblastoma, in calcifying odontogenic cyst, 101, 104 aneurysmal bone cyst, 150–155 clinical features, 150 clinical presentation, 150, 151 frequency, 150 gender, 150 histological features, 153, 154 malignant form, 152–155 multinucleate giant cells, 153, 154 markers for osteoclast phenotype, 154 pathogenesis, 151–153 pathology, 153 pre-existing lesions, 152, 153 radiological features, 151, 154 recurrence rates, 154 site, 150 treatment, 154, 155 anterior median lingual cyst, 188, 189 antral cysts, see maxillary antral cysts antikeratin monoclonal antibodies, see cytokeratins apical granulomas, 126, 129–131, 141 bay cyst, 126, 139 Blandin and Nuhn glands mucocoeles, 173 blood group antigens, dentigerous cysts, 72 keratocysts, 32

Bohn’s nodules, 3 bone cyst, see under ‘aneurysmal’ and ‘solitary’ bone morphogenic protein-4 (BMP-4), 45 bone resorption, 67, 68, 71, 129, 133, 134 botryoid odontogenic cyst, 91, 93 clinical presentation, 91, 92 cytokeratin, 93 frequency, 91 pathogenesis and histopathology, 92, 93 radiological features, 92 recurrence, 92 treatment, 93 branchial cleft anomalies, 184 branchial cleft cysts, 184, 185 histological features, 185 pathogenesis, 184 site and clinical features, 185 intraoral lymphoepithelial cysts, 185, 186 clinical features, 185, 186 DALT, duct associated lymphoid tissue, 186 histological features, 186 pathogenesis, 186 treatment, 187 see also lymphoepithelial cysts breathing: problems from cysts, 119, 182, 190 bronchogenic cyst, 190 development, 190 histological features, 190 buccal cysts: juvenile paradental, 144–147 calcification: cysticercosis, 194 calcifying odontogenic cyst, 102–107 age distribution, 101, 102 classifications, 100, 101, 105, 106 clinical features, 101 clinical presentation, 102, 103 definition, 103 epithelial lining, 103, 105, 106 frequency, 101 gender, 101 genetic studies, 100, 103, 107 immunohistochemistry, 101, 106 melanin deposits, 105 multicystic, 105 multilocular, 102 odontogenic tumours, 101, 103, 104 pathogenesis and pathology, 100, 103, 107 peripheral lesions, 101, 102, 105 radiological features, 102, 103 satellite cysts, 105 site, 101, 102 treatment, 107 ultrastructure, 107 unilocular and multicystic, 105

Caldwell-Luc operation, 163, 167–170 carcinoembryonic antigen, odontogenic cysts, 39, 43 ceroid, radicular cysts, 138 children, 181, 182 cystic hygroma, 190, 191 dermoid, 182 developmental cysts, 181–183, 187, 189 eruption cysts, 76 gingival cysts of infants, 3–5 mucoceles, 171 oral alimentary tract cysts, 188 radicular cysts, 123, 125 thyroglossal duct cyst, 187 cholesteatoma, 6 cholesterol clefts radicular cysts, 134, 137–140 keratocysts, 36 cholesterol crystals in radicular cysts, 134, 137, 138 classification of cysts, 1, 2 clear cells, 87, 8, 92 collagen IV: keratocysts, 19, 2 collagenase in keratocyst, 19, 20, 36 collagenolytic activity, 19 collateral cyst, inflammatory, 123 variety of keratocyst, 25 congenital intralingual cyst, 190 congenital sublingual cysts, 183 cysticercosis, 193

Index

224 Index cystic hygroma, 190, 191 Cysticercus cellulosae, 193, 194 cytokeratins, 38–43, Table 3.6, 49, 50 dentigerous cysts, 74 keratocysts, 38 lateral periodontal cyst, 93 radicular cysts, 139 deciduous teeth: associated with radicular cysts, 123, 125 definition of a cyst, 1 dental lamina: development of keratocysts, 7, 15, 17, 28–30, 35, 43, 4, 53 gingival cysts, 82–84 lateral periodontal cysts, 84, 86–8 dentigerous cysts, 1, 2, 59–75 age distribution, 59–61, 64 age standardised incidence rates, 60, 61 ameloblastoma, 74 anatomical distribution, 62, 64, 65 animal experiments, 68, 69 apoptosis, 6 bcl-2, 6 blood group antigens, 72 carcinomatous changes in, 161 central variety, 63, 65 circumferential variety, 63–65, 69 clinical features, 59–62 clinical presentation, 62, 63 cytokeratins, 38–43, 74 deciduous teeth, 63, 70 definition, 59 diagnosis, 59, 64–6, 70, 74 enucleation, 75 epidermal growth factor, 74 epithelial lining, 69, 71–73, 75 extrafollicular origin, 69 Fas, 6 frequency of, 59 fluids, 70, 71 gender distribution, 60, 62, 68 growth, 67, 68, 71, 72, 74 glycosaminoglycans, 71 immunoglobulins, 70, 71 impacted teeth, 62, 63, 6, 68, 70, 71, 75 inflammation, 65, 6, 69–73 inflammatory origin, 73 interleukin 1, 67 intrafollicular origin, 68 lateral type, 63, 64 mucous metaplasia, 6 origin, 62, 64, 65, 68, 69, 71, 72, 74 pathogenesis, 6, 68, 70 pathology, 73, 73 prostaglandins, 67, 71 protein in fluid, 70 p53, 6 racial frequency, 62, 68 radiology, 63–6 root resorption, 64 site, 62, 64, 75 teeth involved, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 6, 68–72, 75 transforming growth factor, 74 treatment, 75 TUNEL, 6 dermoid and epidermoid cysts, 181–183 age distribution, 181 clinical features, 181 clinical presentation, 182 frequency, 181 gender, 181 histological features, 183 pathogenesis, 182 site, 182 treatment, 183 implantation keratinising epidermoid cysts, 182 developmental cysts of soft tissues, 181–191, see also specific cysts and sites, branchial cleft cysts, bronchogenic cysts, dermoid cysts, keratinous cysts of skin, lingual cysts of foregut origin, thyroglossal duct cysts developmental defects of mandible, 160

Echinococcus spp, 192 elafin 4, 45 enamel, hypoplasia in dentigerous cysts, 69 projections and paradental cysts, 143 epidermal cyst, of the skin, 183, 184 epidermal growth factor (EGF), 4 epidermoid cysts, see dermoid and epidermoid cysts, 181 epithelial membrane antigen, 39, 74 epithelial plaques in cysts, 83, 87–89, 92 eruption cyst, 76–78 clinical features, 76, 7 epithelial lining, 7, 78 frequency, 76 pathogenesis, 76, 7 pathology, 7, 78 radiological features, 76 treatment, 78 experimental production of cysts, dentigerous, 68, 69 keratocyst, 37 radicular, 131, 133, 134 face: dermoid cysts, 181–183 epidermal cyst, 183, 184 factor XIIIa in radicular cysts, 139 fibronectin, 19, 2 flatworms (Cestoidea), 192 follicular cyst, see dentigerous cyst follicular keratocyst, 25 foramen caecum, 186, 188 foregut, lingual cysts, 188–190 see lingual cysts frequency of various jaw cysts, 2 gastric epithelium in oral cysts, 188, 189 ghost cells in calcifying odontogenic cyst, 100, 103–107 gingival cysts, of adults, 79–84 age, 80, 81 ameloblasts, 82, 84 bone erosion, 79–81 clinical features, 79 clinical presentation, 81 epidermoid and keratocyst varieties, 80, 83 frequency, 2, 80 gender frequency, 80, 81 histology, 84 multicystic form, 83, 84 pathogenesis, 79, 82, 87 radiology, 79, 81 relation to lateral periodontal cyst, 79, 80, 83 site, 80, 81 treatment, 84 of infants, 3–5 age distribution, 3 clinical features, 3 frequency, 3 pathogenesis, 3, 4 pathology and treatment, 4, 5 glandular odontogenic cyst, 94–9 age, 95 aggressive behaviour, 96, 9 clinical presentation, 96 cytokeratins, 98 frequency, 95 gender, 95 histological features, 94, 95, 97, 98 immunocytochemistry, 98, 9 mucoepidermoid carcinoma resemblance, 98, 9 multilocularity, 94, 96, 97, 9 PTCH gene, 9 radiological features, 95–97 recurrences, 96, 9 site, 95, 96 terminology, 94, 95 treatment, 9 globulomaxillary cyst, 116, 118 keratocysts and, 1, 26 glycosaminoglycans in cyst fluids, 18, 19, 31, 71, 133

Index 225 goblet cells, see also mucous cells bronchogenic cysts, 190 glandular odontogenic cysts, 9 in nasolabial cysts, 122 in nasopalatine duct cysts, 113, 114 radicular cysts, 135 thyroglossal duct cyst, 18

Gorlin cyst, see calcifying odontogenic cyst

Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, see naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome haemorrhagic bone cyst, see solitary bone cyst haemosiderin in radicular cysts, 138, 140 heparin in cyst fluid, 18, 19 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 176, 178 hyaline bodies: dentigerous cysts, 73 keratocysts, 36 radicular cysts, 136–138 hyaline cartilage in cyst walls, 114–116 hyaluronic acid in cyst fluid, 18, 19, 170 hydatid cysts, 192, 193 hydatid sand, 193 immune mechanisms in radicular cysts, 125, 128, 129, 131, 132, 134 immunoglobulins: dentigerous cysts, 70, 71 keratocysts, 18, 34 radicular cysts, 128, 131, 132 incisive canal cyst, see nasopalatine duct cyst incisive fossae, 110, 1 infection, maxillary antral cyst, 163, 164, 166, 167 nasopalatine duct cyst, 113 radicular cyst, 125, 127, 132, 142 inflammation, antral cysts, 164, 167 keratocyst, 16, 19, 2, 3, 34, 37, 42–45, 48, 49, 5 radicular cyst, 125–128, 130, 132, 134, 135, 140–142 inflammatory collateral cyst, 123 inflammatory paradental cyst (see paradental cyst) interleukins, 19, 20 intralingual cyst of foregut origin, 189

Jacobson’s organ, 115 keratinous cysts, of skin, 183, 184 epidermal cyst, 183, 184 trichilemmal (pilar) cyst, 184 keratocyst, 6–58 age distribution, 7–10 age-specific morbidity rates, 7–9 aggressive behaviour, 3, 1, 13–16, 2, 43, 45–47, 50–53, 57

AgNORs, 45, 48, 49 ameloblastomatoid formations, 16, 35 ameloblastomatous change, 30 antigen, 3 apoptosis, 50–53 arising from basal cell proliferation, 10, 16, 29, 30, 35, 49 arising from dental lamina, 7, 15, 17, 28–30, 35, 43, 4, 53 bcl-2 and bcl-1 (cyclin), 12, 51–53, 58 blood group antigens, 32 blood vessels, 36, 37 bone resorption and OKC growth, 19–23 bony expansion, 8, 12, 24 budding of basal layer, 15, 16, 35, 49, 5, 57 calretinin, 45, 50 carbohydrate components, 38 carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), 39–43 carcinomatous potential, 31 Carnoy’s fluid, 57 cholesterol clefts, 36 clinical features, 7 clinical presentation, 1 collagen IV, 19, 2 collagenase, 19, 20, 36 collagenolytic activity, 19 collateral variety, 25 computerised tomography (CT) scanning, 26–29 crystalline deposits, 34 cyst fluids, 18, 19, 21, 32–34 lactoferrin, 3, 34 osmolality, 18 protein, 32, 3 cyst lining, 15, 16, 18, 23–25, 31–37, 39, 43, 45–49, 52, 53, 57, 58 cytokeratins, dentigerous cysts, 74 keratocysts, 38–43, 49, 50 lateral periodontal cysts, 93 radicular cysts, 139 deflecting roots, 26 dental lamina, remnants or proliferating, 7, 15, 17, 28–30, 35, 43, 4, 53 differential diagnosis, 27, 38 elafin, 4, 45 enlargement, 17–23 bone resorption, 19–23 glycosaminoglycans, 17, 18 inflammatory exudate, 18 osmolality, 18 rate of growth, 17, 18 enucleation, 13, 14, 17, 57, 58 envelopmental OKC, 25 enzyme histochemistry, 37, 38 epidermal growth factor (EGF), 4 epithelial cell rests in OKC wall, 16 epithelial dysplasia, 31, 45 epithelial lining, 18, 2, 31, 32, 35–37, 48 growth potential, 15, 18, 42, 4, 51 histology, 6, 16, 30, 37 infolding, 18 proliferation, 16–18, 20, 2, 29, 35, 37–39, 4, 45, 48–52, 58 sources, 27 epithelial membrane antigens (EMA), 39–41, 43 etiology, 53 expansion of bone, 12, 24 experimental production of cysts, 37 extraneous variety of OKC, 25 family history, 10, 12 fas (CD95), 52 fibrous capsule, 17–19, 34 ‘fissural’ cysts, 6 follicular OKC, 25 frequency, 7, 8 genetics, 16, 29, 45, 48, 53–56 gender and race distributions, 7, 8, 10, 16 glycosaminoglycans, 18, 19, 36 Gp38, 45 growth, 23, 24, 30, 37, 42, 4, 45, 48, 51, 54, 57, 58 growth rate, 17 histochemistry of cell surface carbohydrates, 32 histopathology, 8, 30, 45, 57 human papilloma virus, 31 hyaline bodies, 36 immunoglobulins, 34 immunohistochemistry, 38–53 incidence, 7–10 incomplete eradication, 14 infected OKCs, 1, 27 inflammatory exudate, 17, 18, 34 IPO-38 antigen, 51 keratinized layer, 30 keratinised squames (see squames) keratocyst antigen (KCA), 3 keratocystic odontogenic tumour, 6 Ki-67, 12, 39, 43, 45, 47–53, 56, 58 lactoferrin in OKC fluid, 3, 34 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 12, 26, 27, 29 malignant change, 31, 56 marsupialisation, 14, 20, 57, 58 mast cells, 19, 36 melanin pigmentation, 36 mesenchymal capsule, 34, 35, 37 mitotic activity, 17, 18, 31 monoclonal antibodies, 38–40, 42–4

226 Index keratocyst (cont.) mucous metaplasia, 19, 36 multilocularity, 14, 18, 23, 24, 27, 57 multiple OKCs, 10, 1, 14, 16, 17, 28, 29, 34, 35, 54 myofibroblasts, 2, 23 naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), 10–12, 14, 16, 2, 29, 31, 32, 34–36, 43, 45–48, 50–56

NBCCS gene, 53 nucleolar organising regions, 45 orthokeratinisation, 7, 1, 14, 2, 30, 31, 34, 36, 39, 41, 43, 45, 50, 51 orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC), 30, 34, 36, 43, 51 parathyroid hormone-related protein

(PTHrP), 23 pathogenesis, 28, 37, 38, 4, 53 pathology, 8, 30, 45, 57 PCNA, 45–52 perforation of bone, 12–15, 17, 24, 26–28, 57 peripheral OKC, 1, 12 preoperative diagnosis, 26, 32 primordial cyst, 6, 7, 25, 28, 4 PTCH gene, 54, 56 p53, 12, 41, 45–47, 49–53, 5, 56 p63, 50, 51 p73, 50 radiological features, 14, 23–29, 57 rat liver antigen (RLA), 39–41 recurrences, 10, 1, 13–17, 26, 30, 34–37, 45, 46, 48, 51, 56–58 root resorption, 26 satellite cysts, 14, 16, 29, 35, 48, 49 simulating nasopalatine cyst, 26 site, 7, 10, 1, 16, 29 size, 1, 13, 14, 16–18, 20, 21, 57, 58 sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling, 56 squames, 32, 3, 36 terminology, 6 treatment: 13–15, 30, 45, 48, 56–58 enucleation, 1, 13, 15, 17, 30, 57 excision of epithelium, 1, 13,15, 17, 30, 57 marsupialisation, 14, 20, 57, 58 TUNEL , 52 ultrastructural studies, 34, 36, 37 varieties of OKC, 7, 8, 1, 34 latent bone cyst, 160 lateral dentigerous cyst, 60, 63–65 lateral periodontal cyst, 84–91 age distribution, 85 botryoid type, 91–93 clear cells, 87, 8, 92 clinical features, 84 clinical presentation, 85 cytokeratin composition, 93 encapsulated multicystic, 91, 93 epithelial lining, 84, 8, 90 epithelial plaques, 83, 87–89, 92 frequency, 84 gender distribution, 85 growth potential, 87 histochemistry, 98 histology, 8 lateral radicular cyst, 79 melanin in epthelial lining, 90 multicystic form, 87–89, 91–93 pathogenesis, 82 plaques, seeepithelial plaques radiological features, 86, 91, 92 relation to gingival cyst, 79, 83–85, 87 site, 85 thickening of epithelium, 8, 89 treatment, 91 unicystic type, 87–89 unilocular type, 91, 92 leucine aminopeptidase, in keratocyst wall, 37 lingual cysts, foregut origin, 188–190 clinical features, 188, 189 development, 188 histological features, 189, 190 treatment, 190 lingual mandibular bone defect (Stafne cavity), 160, 161 lip, cysticercosis, 193 mucoceles, 171–174 lipofuscin in nasopalatine duct cysts, 115 lymphocytes in radicular cysts, 128–130, 133, 138, 140 lymphoepithelial cysts, see branchial cleft anomalies, 184–187

Malassez, cell rests, 30, 38, 42, 4 keratin, 38 paradental cyst, 143, 148, 149 proliferation, 128–131, 140

Malherbe, calcifying epithelioma of, 100, 103, 105, 106 mandibular infected buccal cyst, 143–147 mast cells keratocysts, 19, 36 radicular cysts, 128, 134, 140 matrix metalloproteins, 19–21 maxillary antrum, antral cysts, 162–170 classification, 163 mucocoele of antrum, 162–164 age and gender, 162 allergy, 164 clinical features, 162 clinical presentation, 163 frequency, 162 histopathology, 164 inflammatory origin, 162–164 mucosal cyst, 162, 164–166 pathogenesis, 164 radiological features, 163 site, 165 terminology, 162 postoperative maxillary cyst, 167–170 age and gender, 168 clinical features, 167–169 clinical presentation, 168, 169 frequency, 167, 168 histopathology, 170 pathogenesis, 169 radiological features, 169 treatment, 170 retention cyst and pseudocyst, 164–167 age and gender, 164 clinical presentation, 165, 166 frequency, 164 pathogenesis, 166, 167 pathology and histopathology, 167 radiological features, 166 treatment, 167 median alveolar cyst (so-called), 115, 116 median mandibular cyst (so-called), 115, 116 median palatal raphé, 117 median palatine cyst (so-called), 108, 109, 1, 112, 115, 116 melanin-containing cells, 90 melanin deposits in cysts, 36, 105, 115 midpalatal raphé cysts of infants, 3–5, 115, 117 mouth floor, dermoid and epidermoid cysts, 181, 183 lymphoepithelial cyst, 184 ranula, 172, 176, 177 mucocoeles, 171–176 see ‘salivary gland cysts’ myofibroblasts, 19, 2 naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), 10–12, 14, 16, 2, 29, 31, 32, 34–36, 43, 45–48, 50–56 nasolabial cyst, 119, 122 age distribution, 119, 120 breathing difficulty, 119 clinical features, 119 clinical presentation, 119, 120 epithelial lining, 122 frequency, 119 gender distribution, 119, 121 histological features, 122 origin, 121 pathogenesis, 121, 122 radiological features, 120, 121 treatment, 122

(Parte 1 de 13)

Comentários