# Modelling Photovoltaic Systems Using PSpice - 45271 toc

Contents

Foreword Preface Acknowledgements

1 Introduction to Photovoltaic Systems and PSpice

Summary 1.1 The photovoltaic system

1.2 Important definitions: irradiance and solar radiation 1.3 Learning some of PSpice basics 1.4 Using PSpice subcircuits to simplify portability

1.5 PSpice piecewise linear (PWL) sources and controlled voltage sources 1.6 Standard AM1.5G spectrum of the sun 1.7 Standard AM0 spectrum and comparison to black body radiation 1.8 Energy input to the PV system: solar radiation availability 1.9 Problems 1.10 References xiii

2 Spectral Response and Short-Circuit Current

Summary 2.1 Introduction 2.1.1 Absorption coefficient a(X) 2.1.2 Reflectance R(X)

2.2.1 Short-circuit spectral current density

2.2.2 Spectral photon flux 2.2.3 Total short-circuit spectral current density and units

2.3 PSpice model for the short-circuit spectral current density 2.3.1 Absorption coefficient subcircuit

2.3.2 Short-circuit current subcircuit model

2.2 Analytical solar cell model

2.4 Short-circuit current xv xvii viii CONTENTS

2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9

2.10 2.1

2.12 2.13

Quantum efficiency (QE) Spectral response (SR) Dark current density Effects of solar cell material Superposition DC sweep plots and I(V) solar cell characteristics Failing to fit to the ideal circuit model: series and shunt resistances and recombination terms Problems References

Electrical Characteristics of the Solar Cell

Summary 3.1 Ideal equivalent circuit 3.2 PSpice model of the ideal solar cell 3.3 Open circuit voltage 3.4 Maximum power point 3.5 Fill factor (F) and power conversion efficiency (7) 3.6 Generalized model of a solar cell

3.7 Generalized PSpice model of a solar cell 3.8 Effects of the series resistance on the short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage

3.9 Effect of the series resistance on the fill factor 3.10 Effects of the shunt resistance 3.1 1 Effects of the recombination diode 3.12 Temperature effects 3.13 Effects of space radiation 3.14 Behavioural solar cell model 3.15 Use of the behavioural model and PWL sources to simulate the response to a time series of irradiance and temperature 3.15.1 Time units

3.15.2 Variable units 3.16 Problems 3.17 References

4 Solar Cell Arrays, PV Modules and PV Generators

Summary 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Series connection of solar cells 4.2.1 Association of identical solar cells 4.2.2 Association of identical solar cells with different irradiance levels: hot spot problem 4.2.3 Bypass diode in series strings of solar cells

4.3 Shunt connection of solar cells 4.3.1 Shadow effects

4.4 The terrestrial PV module 4.5 Conversion of the PV module standard characteristics to arbitrary irradiance and temperature values

4.5.1 4.6 Behavioural PSpice model for a PV module

Transformation based in normalized variables (ISPRA method)

CONTENTS ix

4.7 Hot spot problem in a PV module and safe operation area (SOA) 4.8 Photovoltaic arrays 4.9 Scaling up photovoltaic generators and PV plants 4.10 Problems 4.1 1 References

5 Interfacing PV Modules to loads and Battery Modelling Summary

5.1 5.2 Photovoltaic pump systems DC loads directly connected to PV modules

5.2.1 DC series motor PSpice circuit 5.2.2 Centrifugal pump PSpice model 5.2.3 Parameter extraction 5.2.4 PSpice simulation of a PV array-series DC motor-centrifugal pump system 5.3 PV modules connected to a battery and load 5.3.1 Lead-acid battery characteristics 5.3.2 Lead-Acid battery PSpice model 5.3.3 Adjusting the PSpice model to commercial batteries 5.3.4 Battery model behaviour under realistic PV system conditions 5.3.5 Simplified PSpice battery model 5.4 Problems 5.5 References

6 Power Conditioning and Inverter Modelling

Summary 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Blocking diodes

6.3 Charge regulation 6.3.1 Parallel regulation 6.3.2 Series regulation 6.4 Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) 6.4.1 MPPT based on a DC-DC buck converter 6.4.2 MPPT based on a DC-DC boost converter 6.4.3 Behavioural MPPT PSpice model

6.5.1 Inverter topological PSpice model 6.5.2 Behavioural PSpice inverter model for direct PV generator-inverter connection 6.5.3 Behavioural PSpice inverter model for battery-inverter connection 6.6 Problems 6.7 References

6.5 Inverters

7 Standalone PV Systems

Summary 7.1 Standalone photovoltaic systems

7.2 The concept of the equivalent peak solar hours (PSH) 7.3 Energy balance in a PV system: simplified PV array sizing procedure 7.4 Daily energy balance in a PV system 7.4.1 Instantaneous power mismatch x CONTENTS

7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.1 7.12 7.13

7.4.3 Day-time load Seasonal energy balance in a PV system

Simplified sizing procedure for the battery in a Standalone PV system Stochastic radiation time series Loss of load probability (LLP) Comparison of PSpice simulation and monitoring results

Long-term PSpice simulation of standalone PV systems: a case study Long-term PSpice simulation of a water pumping PV system

Problems

References

8 Grid-connected PV Systems summary 8.1 Introduction

8.2 General system description 8.3 Technical considerations 8.3.1 Islanding protection 8.3.2 Voltage disturbances 8.3.3 Frequency disturbances 8.3.4 Disconnection 8.3.5 Reconnection after grid failure 8.3.6 DC injection into the grid 8.3.7 Grounding 8.3.8 EM1 8.3.9 Power factor 8.4 PSpice modelling of inverters for grid-connected PV systems 8.5 AC modules PSpice model 8.6 Sizing and energy balance of grid-connected PV systems

8.7 Problems 8.8 References

9 Small Photovoltaics

Summary 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Small photovoltaic system constraints 9.3 Radiometric and photometric quantities 9.4 Luminous flux and illuminance

9.4.1 Distance square law 9.4.2 Relationship between luminance flux and illuminance Solar cell short circuit current density produced by an artificial light 9.5.1 Effect of the illuminance 9.5.2 Effect of the quantum efficiency 9.6 I(V) Characteristics under artificial light 9.7 Illuminance equivalent of AM1.5G spectrum

9.8 Random Monte Carlo analysis 9.9 Case study: solar pocket calculator

9.10 Lighting using LEDs

9.1 1 Case study: Light alarm 9.1 1 .I 9.1.2 Case study: a street lighting system

PSpice generated random time series of radiation Long-term simulation of a flash light system

9.12 9.13 Problems 9.14 References

Annex 1 PSpice Files Used in Chapter 1 Annex 2 PSpice Files Used in Chapter 2 Annex 3 PSpice Files Used in Chapter 3 Annex 4 PSpice Files Used in Chapter 4 Annex 5 PSpice Files Used in Chapter 5 Annex 6 PSpice Files Used in Chapter 6 Annex 7 PSpice Files Used in Chapter 7 Annex 8 PSpice Files Used in Chapter 8 Annex 9 PSpice Files Used in Chapter 9 Annex 10 Summary of Solar Cell Basic Theory

Annex 1 Estimation of the Radiation in an Arbitrarily Oriented Surface

Index

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