Advances in Industrial Control

Advances in Industrial Control

(Parte 1 de 6)

Advances in Industrial Control Advances in Industrial Control

Other titles published in this series:

Digital Controller Implementation and Fragility Robert S.H. Istepanian and James F. Whidborne (Eds.)

Optimisation of Industrial Processes at Supervisory Level Doris Sáez, Aldo Cipriano and Andrzej W. Ordys

Robust Control of Diesel Ship Propulsion Nikolaos Xiros

Hydraulic Servo-systems Mohieddine Jelali and Andreas Kroll

Model-based Fault Diagnosis in Dynamic Systems Using Identification Techniques Silvio Simani, Cesare Fantuzzi and Ron J. Patton

Strategies for Feedback Linearisation Freddy Garces, Victor M. Becerra, Chandrasekhar Kambhampati and Kevin Warwick

Robust Autonomous Guidance Alberto Isidori, Lorenzo Marconi and Andrea Serrani

Dynamic Modelling of Gas Turbines Gennady G. Kulikov and Haydn A. Thompson (Eds.)

Control of Fuel Cell Power Systems Jay T. Pukrushpan, Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Huei Peng

Fuzzy Logic, Identification and Predictive Control Jairo Espinosa, Joos Vandewalle and Vincent Wertz

Optimal Real-time Control of Sewer Networks Magdalene Marinaki and Markos Papageorgiou

Process Modelling for Control Benoît Codrons

Computational Intelligence in Time Series Forecasting Ajoy K. Palit and Dobrivoje Popovic

Modelling and Control of Mini-Flying Machines Pedro Castillo, Rogelio Lozano and Alejandro Dzul

Ship Motion Control Tristan Perez

Hard Disk Drive Servo Systems (2nd Ed.) Ben M. Chen, Tong H. Lee, Kemao Peng and Venkatakrishnan Venkataramanan

Measurement, Control, and Communication Using IEEE 1588 John C. Eidson

Piezoelectric Transducers for Vibration Control and Damping S.O. Reza Moheimani and Andrew J. Fleming

Manufacturing Systems Control Design Stjepan Bogdan, Frank L. Lewis, Zdenko Kovaìiè and José Mireles Jr.

Windup in Control Peter Hippe

Nonlinear H2/Hũ Constrained Feedback Control

Murad Abu-Khalaf, Jie Huang and Frank L. Lewis

Practical Grey-box Process Identification Torsten Bohlin

Control of Traffic Systems in Buildings Sandor Markon, Hajime Kita, Hiroshi Kise and Thomas Bartz-Beielstein

Wind Turbine Control Systems Fernando D. Bianchi, Hernán De Battista and Ricardo J. Mantz

Advanced Fuzzy Logic Technologies in Industrial Applications Ying Bai, Hanqi Zhuang and Dali Wang (Eds.)

Practical PID Control Antonio Visioli

(continued after Index)

Iulian Munteanu • Antoneta Iuliana Bratcu Nicolaos-Antonio Cutululis • Emil Ceangӽ

Optimal Control of Wind Energy Systems

Towards a Global Approach

Iulian Munteanu, Dr.-Eng. “Dunârea de Jos” University of Galaįi Faculty of Electrical Engineering and

Electronics

Department of Electronics and

Telecommunications 800008-Galaįi Romania

Nicolaos-Antonio Cutululis, Dr.-Eng. Wind Energy Department Risø National Laboratory Technical University of Denmark (DTU) DK-4000 Roskilde Denmark

Antoneta Iuliana Bratcu, Dr.-Eng.

“Dunârea de Jos” University of Galaįi Faculty of Electrical Engineering and

Electronics

Department of Electrical Energy

Conversion Systems 800008-Galaįi Romania

Emil Ceangӽ, Dr.-Eng. “Dunârea de Jos” University of Galaįi Faculty of Electrical Engineering and

Electronics

Department of Electrical Energy

Conversion Systems 800008-Galaįi Romania

ISBN 978-1-84800-079-7 e-ISBN 978-1-84800-080-3 DOI 10.1007/978-1-84800-080-3

Advances in Industrial Control series ISSN 1430-9491

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Control Number: 2007942442 © 2008 Springer-Verlag London Limited

MATLAB® and Simulink® are registered trademarks of The MathWorks, Inc., 3 Apple Hill Drive, Natick, MA 01760-2098, USA. http://www.mathworks.com

Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.

The use of registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.

may be made

The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that Cover design: eStudio Calamar S.L., Girona, Spain Printed on acid-free paper 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 springer.com

Advances in Industrial Control

Series Editors

Professor Michael J. Grimble, Professor of Industrial Systems and Director Professor Michael A. Johnson, Professor (Emeritus) of Control Systems and Deputy Director

Industrial Control Centre Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering University of Strathclyde Graham Hills Building 50 George Street Glasgow G1 1QE United Kingdom

Series Advisory Board

Professor E.F. Camacho Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Universidad de Sevilla Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n 41092 Sevilla Spain

Professor S. Engell Lehrstuhl für Anlagensteuerungstechnik Fachbereich Chemietechnik Universität Dortmund 44221 Dortmund Germany

Professor G. Goodwin Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering The University of Newcastle Callaghan NSW 2308 Australia

Professor T.J. Harris Department of Chemical Engineering Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 Canada

Professor T.H. Lee Department of Electrical Engineering National University of Singapore 4 Engineering Drive 3 Singapore 117576

Professor Emeritus O.P. Malik Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Calgary 2500, University Drive, NW Calgary Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada

Professor K.-F. Man Electronic Engineering Department City University of Hong Kong Tat Chee Avenue Kowloon Hong Kong

Professor G. Olsson Department of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Lund Institute of Technology Box 118 S-221 0 Lund Sweden

Professor A. Ray Pennsylvania State University Department of Mechanical Engineering 0329 Reber Building University Park PA 16802 USA

Professor D.E. Seborg Chemical Engineering 3335 Engineering I University of California Santa Barbara Santa Barbara CA 93106 USA

Doctor K.K. Tan Department of Electrical Engineering National University of Singapore 4 Engineering Drive 3 Singapore 117576

Professor Ikuo Yamamoto The University of Kitakyushu Department of Mechanical Systems and Environmental Engineering Faculty of Environmental Engineering 1-1, Hibikino,Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, 808-0135 Japan

To our families To our families

Series Editors’ Foreword

The series Advances in Industrial Control aims to report and encourage technology transfer in control engineering. The rapid development of control technology has an impact on all areas of the control discipline. New theory, new controllers, actuators, sensors, new industrial processes, computer methods, new applications, new philosophies}, new challenges. Much of this development work resides in industrial reports, feasibility study papers and the reports of advanced collaborative projects. The series offers an opportunity for researchers to present an extended exposition of such new work in all aspects of industrial control for wider and rapid dissemination.

Electrical power generation from wind energy conversion systems is a growth industry in the European Union, as it is globally. Targets within the countries of the EU are set at 12% market share by 2020 but, as the authors of this Advances in Industrial Control monograph observe: wind energy conversion at the parameter and technical standards imposed by the energy markets is not possible without the essential contribution of automatic control. In keeping with this assertion, authors Iulian Munteanu, Antoneta Iuliana Bratcu, Nicolaos-Antonio Cutululis and Emil Ceangӽ proceed to outline their vision of how control engineering techniques can contribute to the control of various types of wind turbine power systems. The result is a wide-ranging monograph that begins from the basic characteristics of wind as a renewable energy resource and finishes at hardware-in-the-loop concepts and testrigs for the assessment of prototype controller solutions.

The research journey passes through those phases that are common to any indepth investigation into the control of a complex nonlinear industrial system. Understanding the wind energy process and deriving models and performance specifications occupies the first three chapters of the monograph. The next three then concentrate on control designs as they evolve to meet more complex sets of performance objectives. The monograph concludes with an assessment of the value that can be obtained from hardware-in-the-loop performance tests.

Thus, Optimal Control of Wind Energy Systems with its full assessment of a variety of optimal control strategies makes a welcome contribution to the wind power control literature. The volume nicely complements the Advances in Industrial Control monograph Wind Turbine Control Systems: Principles, x Series Editors’ Foreword

Modelling and Gain Scheduling Design by Fernando Bianchi and his colleagues that was published in July 2006. Together these volumes provide a thorough research framework for the study of the control of wind energy conversion systems.

Industrial Control Centre M.J. Grimble Glasgow M.A. Johnson Scotland, UK 2007

Preface

Actual strategies for sustainable energy development have as prior objective the gradual replacement of fossil-fuel-based energy sources by renewable energy ones. Among the clean energy sources, wind energy conversion systems currently carry significant weight in many developed countries. Following continual efforts of the international research community, a mature wind energy conversion technology is now available to sustain the rapid dynamics of concerned investment programs.

The main problem regarding wind power systems is the major discrepancy between the irregular character of the primary source (wind speed is a random, strongly non-stationary process, with turbulence and extreme variations) and the exigent demands regarding the electrical energy quality: reactive power, harmonics, flicker, etc. Thus, wind energy conversion within the parameters imposed by the energy market and by technical standards is not possible without the essential contribution of automatic control.

The stochastic nature of the primary energy source represents a risk factor for the viability of the mechanical structure. The literature concerned emphasises the importance of the reliability criterion, sometimes more important than energy conversion efficiency (e.g., in the case of off-shore farms), in assessing global economic efficiency. This aspect must be taken into account in control strategies.

Many research works deal with wind power systems control, aiming at optimising the energetic conversion, interfacing wind turbines to the grid and reducing the fatigue load of the mechanical structure. Meanwhile, the gap between the development of advanced control algorithms and their effective use in most of the practical engineering domain is widely recognized. Much work has been and continues to be done, especially by the research community, in order to bridge this gap and ease the technology transfer in control engineering.

This book is aimed at presenting a point of view on the wind power generation optimal control issues, covering a large segment of industrial wind power applications. Its main idea is to propose the use of a set of optimization criteria which comply with a comprehensive set of requirements, including the energy conversion efficiency, mechanical reliability, as well as quality of the energy provided. This idea opens the perspective toward a multi-purpose global control approach.

Prefacexii

A series of control techniques are analyzed, assessed and compared, starting from the classical ones, like PI control, maximum power point strategies, LQG optimal control techniques, and continuing with some modern ones: sliding-mode techniques, feedback linearization control and robust control. The discussion is aimed at identifying the benefits of dynamic optimization approaches to wind power systems. The main results are presented along with illustration by case studies and MATLAB®/Simulink® simulation assessment. The corresponding software programmes and block diagrams are included on the back-of-book software material. For some of the case studies presented real-time simulation results are also available.

The discourse of this book concludes by stressing the point on the possibility of designing WECS control laws based upon the frequency separation principle. The idea behind this is simple. First, one must define the set of quality demands the control law must comply with. Then one seeks to split this set into contradictory pairs, for each of them a component of the control law being separately synthesized. Finally, these components are summed to yield the total control input. This approach is possible because the different WECS dynamic properties usually involved in the imposed quality requirements are exhibited in disjointed frequency ranges.

Offering a thorough description of wind energy conversion systems – principles, functionality, operation modes, control goals and modelling – this book is mainly addressed to researchers with a control background wishing either to approach or to go deeper in their study of wind energy systems. It is also intended to be a guide for control engineers, researchers and graduate students working in the field in learning and applying systematic optimization procedures to wind power systems.

The book is organised in seven chapters preceded by a glossary and followed by a concluding chapter, three appendices, a list of pertinent references and an index.

Chapter 1 realises an introduction about the wind energy resource and systems.

Chapter 2 presents a systemic analysis of the main parts of a wind energy conversion system and introduces the associated control objectives. The modelling development needed for control purposes is presented in the Chapter 3. Chapter 4 is dedicated to explaining the fundamentals of the wind turbine control systems. In Chapter 5 some powerful control methods for energy conversion maximization are presented, each of which is illustrated by a case study. Chapter 6 deals with mixed optimization criteria and introduces the frequency separation principle in the optimal control of the wind energy systems, whose effectiveness is suggested by two case studies. Chapter 7 is focused on using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation philosophy for building development systems that experimentally validate the wind energy systems control laws. A case study is presented to illustrate the proposed methodology. Chapter 8 discusses general conclusions and suggestions for future development of WECS control laws.

(Parte 1 de 6)

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