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Mesoscale & Microscale Meteorology Division • National Center for Atmospheric Research

Version 3 Modeling System User’s Guide July 2014

Foreword This User’s Guide describes the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) Version 3.6 modeling system, released in April 2014. As the ARW is developed further, this document will be continuously enhanced and updated. Please send feedback to wrfhelp@ucar.edu This document is complementary to the ARW Tech Note http://www.m.ucar.edu/wrf/users/docs/arw_v3.pdf which describes the equations, numerics, boundary conditions, and nesting etc. in greater detail. Highlights of updates to WRFV3.6 include: • WRF model: New physics: o Sub-tiling capability for Noah LSM (contributed by Dan Li of Princeton) o Lake model (contributed by Hongping Gu of IAP China and Jiming Jin of Utah State University) o Full and ‘fast’ versions of HUJI spectral bin microphysics (contributed by Alex Khain and Barry Lynn of Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel) o Improved aerosol input capability for use in RRTMG and new Goddard radiation options (contributed by Jose Ruiz-Arias of University of Jaen, Spain) o Sub-grid cloud fraction from Kain-Fritsch scheme (contributed by Alapaty and Herwehe of EPA) o Vertical structure function in SKEBS (contributed by J. Berner of NCAR) Others: o Improved wind farm parameterization (contributed by Pedro Jimenez of Spain, and Henning Heiberg-Andersen of Uni Rerearch, Norway) o Improvement to NoahMP o WRF-Hydro 2.0 (contributed by NCAR/RAL) o Diagnostic option (contributed by AFWA) o Faster netCDF write (contributed by Jim Abeles of IBM and J. Michalakes of NCEP) o 12-montly, 30-sec Leaf-Area Index dataset derived from MODIS (contributed by M. Barlage of NCAR/RAL) o 15-seconds MODIS landuse dataset (contributed by Patrick Broxton and Xubin Zeng of Univ of Arizona) • WRF-DA updates: o New instruments which can be assimilated: Meteosat SEVIRI (IR radiance), AIREP humidity and Metop-B instruments (IASI, AMSU-A and MHS) o Observation thinning for conventional obs in ASCII format o Dual-resolution hybrid assimilation o Radiative transfer code updated: CRTM is up to 2.1.3, and RTTOV 1.1 • WRF-Chemistry o Improvement on existing code and packages. Foreword This User’s Guide describes the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) Version 3.6 modeling system, released in April 2014. As the ARW is developed further, this document will be continuously enhanced and updated. Please send feedback to wrfhelp@ucar.edu This document is complementary to the ARW Tech Note http://www.m.ucar.edu/wrf/users/docs/arw_v3.pdf which describes the equations, numerics, boundary conditions, and nesting etc. in greater detail. Highlights of updates to WRFV3.6 include: • WRF model: New physics: o Sub-tiling capability for Noah LSM (contributed by Dan Li of Princeton) o Lake model (contributed by Hongping Gu of IAP China and Jiming Jin of Utah State University) o Full and ‘fast’ versions of HUJI spectral bin microphysics (contributed by Alex Khain and Barry Lynn of Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel) o Improved aerosol input capability for use in RRTMG and new Goddard radiation options (contributed by Jose Ruiz-Arias of University of Jaen, Spain) o Sub-grid cloud fraction from Kain-Fritsch scheme (contributed by Alapaty and Herwehe of EPA) o Vertical structure function in SKEBS (contributed by J. Berner of NCAR) Others: o Improved wind farm parameterization (contributed by Pedro Jimenez of Spain, and Henning Heiberg-Andersen of Uni Rerearch, Norway) o Improvement to NoahMP o WRF-Hydro 2.0 (contributed by NCAR/RAL) o Diagnostic option (contributed by AFWA) o Faster netCDF write (contributed by Jim Abeles of IBM and J. Michalakes of NCEP) o 12-montly, 30-sec Leaf-Area Index dataset derived from MODIS (contributed by M. Barlage of NCAR/RAL) o 15-seconds MODIS landuse dataset (contributed by Patrick Broxton and Xubin Zeng of Univ of Arizona) • WRF-DA updates: o New instruments which can be assimilated: Meteosat SEVIRI (IR radiance), AIREP humidity and Metop-B instruments (IASI, AMSU-A and MHS) o Observation thinning for conventional obs in ASCII format o Dual-resolution hybrid assimilation o Radiative transfer code updated: CRTM is up to 2.1.3, and RTTOV 1.1 • WRF-Chemistry o Improvement on existing code and packages.

For the latest version of this document, please visit the ARW Users’ Web site at http://www.m.ucar.edu/wrf/users/ Contributors to this guide: Wei Wang, Cindy Bruyère, Michael Duda, Jimy Dudhia, Dave Gill, Michael Kavulich, Kelly Keene, Hui-Chuan Lin, John Michalakes, Syed Rizvi, Xin Zhang, Judith Berner and Kate Smith Contributors to WRF-Fire chapter: Jonathan D. Beezley, Janice L. Coen, and Jan Mandel Contributors to UPP section: Hui-Ya Chuang, Nicole McKee, Tricia Slovacek, Jamie Wolff, and Kate Smith Special Acknowledgment: We gratefully acknowledge the late Dr. Thomas T. Warner for his years of research, development, instruction, leadership, and motivation in the field of NWP modeling. For the latest version of this document, please visit the ARW Users’ Web site at http://www.m.ucar.edu/wrf/users/ Contributors to this guide: Wei Wang, Cindy Bruyère, Michael Duda, Jimy Dudhia, Dave Gill, Michael Kavulich, Kelly Keene, Hui-Chuan Lin, John Michalakes, Syed Rizvi, Xin Zhang, Judith Berner and Kate Smith Contributors to WRF-Fire chapter: Jonathan D. Beezley, Janice L. Coen, and Jan Mandel Contributors to UPP section: Hui-Ya Chuang, Nicole McKee, Tricia Slovacek, Jamie Wolff, and Kate Smith Special Acknowledgment: We gratefully acknowledge the late Dr. Thomas T. Warner for his years of research, development, instruction, leadership, and motivation in the field of NWP modeling.

WRF-ARW V3: User’s Guide i 1. Overview − Introduction ................................................................................. 1-1 − The WRF Modeling System Program Components ..................... 1-2 2. Software Installation − Introduction .................................................................................. 2-1 − Required Compilers and Scripting Languages ............................. 2-2 − Required/Optional Libraries to Download .................................... 2-3 − Post-Processing Utilities ............................................................... 2-4 − UNIX Environment Settings ......................................................... 2-4 − Building the WRF Code ................................................................ 2-5 − Building the WPS Code ................................................................ 2-6 − Building the WRFDA Code (for 3DVAR) ...................................... 2-7 − Building the WRFDA Code (for 4DVAR) ………………………….. 2-9 3. The WRF Preprocessing System (WPS) − Introduction ................................................................................. 3-1 − Function of Each WPS Program ................................................. 3-2 − Installing the WPS ....................................................................... 3-4 − Running the WPS ........................................................................ 3-7 − Creating Nested Domains with the WPS .................................. 3-20 − Selecting Between USGS and MODIS-based Land Use Data .......................................................................... 3-2 − Selecting Static Data for the Gravity Wave Drag Scheme ........ 3-23 − Using Multiple Meteorological Data Sources ............................ 3-23 − Alternative Initialization of Lake SSTs…………………………… 3-26 − Parallelism in the WPS .............................................................. 3-28 − Checking WPS Output .............................................................. 3-29 − WPS Utility Programs ................................................................ 3-30 − Writing Meteorological Data to the Intermediate Format ........... 3-3 − Creating and Editing Vtables ..................................................... 3-35 − Writing Static Data to the Geogrid Binary Format ..................... 3-37 − Creating an Urban Fraction Field from NLCD Data .................. 3-40 − Description of Namelist Variables ............................................. 3-42 − Description of GEOGRID.TBL Options ..................................... 3-47 − Description of index Options ..................................................... 3-50 − Description of METGRID.TBL Options ...................................... 3-53 − Available Interpolation Options in Geogrid and Metgrid ............ 3-56 − Land Use and Soil Categories in the Static Data ...................... 3-59 − WPS Output Fields .................................................................... 3-61 4. WRF Initialization − Introduction ................................................................................. 4-1 − Initialization for Ideal Cases ........................................................ 4-3

WRF-ARW V3: User’s Guide i − Initialization for Real Data Cases ................................................ 4-6 5. WRF Model − Introduction ................................................................................ 5-1 − Installing WRF ............................................................................ 5-2 − Running WRF ............................................................................. 5-8 − Examples of namelists for various applications ........................ 5-30 − Check Output ........................................................................... 5-3 − Trouble Shooting ....................................................................... 5-34 − Physics and Dynamics Options ................................................. 5-34 − Summary of PBL Physics Options………………………………. 5-47 − Summary of Microphysics Options………………………………. 5-48 − Summary of Cumulus Parameterization Options………………. 5-50 − Summary of Radiation Physics Options.................................... 5-51 − Description of Namelist Variables ............................................. 5-54 − WRF Output Fields .................................................................. 5-102 6. WRF Data Assimilation − Introduction ................................................................................. 6-1 − Installing WRFDA for 3D-Var Run…. .......................................... 6-4 − Installing WRFPLUS and WRFDA for 4D-Var Run ..................... 6-8 − Running Observation Preprocessor (OBSPROC) ...................... 6-9 − Running WRFDA ....................................................................... 6-13 − Radiance Data Assimilations in WRFDA .................................. 6-21 − Precipitation Data Assimilation in WRFDA 4D-Var…………….. 6-31 − Updating WRF boundary conditions ......................................... 6-34 − Running gen_be ........................................................................ 6-36 − Additional WRFDA Exercises .................................................... 6-39 − WRFDA with Multivariate Background Error (MBE) Statistics…6-42 − WRFDA Diagnostics ................................................................. 6-43 − Hybrid Data Assimilation ........................................................... 6-47 − ETKF Data Assimilation............................................................. 6-51 − Description of Namelist Variables ............................................. 6-56 7. Objective Analysis (OBSGRID) − Introduction ................................................................................. 7-1 − Program Flow .............................................................................. 7-2 − Source of Observations ............................................................... 7-3 − Objective Analysis techniques in OBSGRID ............................... 7-4 − Quality Control for Observations ................................................. 7-6 − Additional Observations .............................................................. 7-7 − Surface FDDA option .................................................................. 7-7 − Objective Analysis on Model Nests ............................................. 7-8

WRF-ARW V3: User’s Guide i − How to run OBSGRID ................................................................. 7-8 − Output Files ............................................................................... 7-10 − Plot Utilities ............................................................................... 7-13 − Observations Format ................................................................. 7-15 − OBSGRID Namelist ................................................................... 7-18 8. WRF Software − WRF Build Mechanism ................................................................ 8-1 − Registry ....................................................................................... 8-5 − I/O Applications Program Interface (I/O API) ............................ 8-14 − Timekeeping .............................................................................. 8-14 − Software Documentation ........................................................... 8-15 − Performance .............................................................................. 8-15 9. Post-Processing Programs − Introduction ................................................................................. 9-1 − NCL . ........................................................................................... 9-2 − RIP4 ......................................................................................... 9-20 − ARWpost ................................................................................... 9-29 − UPP ......................................................................................... 9-36 − VAPOR ...................................................................................... 9-59 10. Utilities and Tools − Introduction ............................................................................... 10-1 − read_wrf_nc .............................................................................. 10-1 − iowrf . ......................................................................................... 10-5 − p_interp ..................................................................................... 10-6 − TC Bogus Scheme .................................................................... 10-9 − v_interp ................................................................................... 10-1 − proc_oml.f ............................................................................... 10-13 − Tools ....................................................................................... 10-14 Appendix A: WRF-Fire − Introduction ................................................................................. A-1 − WRF_Fire in idealized cases ...................................................... A-3 − Fire variables in namelist.input ................................................... A-4 − namelist.fire ................................................................................. A-5 − Running WRF_Fire on real data ................................................. A-6 − Fire state variables .................................................................... A-12 − WRF-Fire software ................................................................... A-12

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