Magnesium in the central nervous system

Magnesium in the central nervous system

(Parte 1 de 10)

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Magnesium in the

Central Nervous System

Magnesium in the

Central Nervous System

Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology & Adelaide Centre for Neuroscience Research, School of Medical

Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

Department of Pharmacology, “Gr. T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania

Published in Adelaide by University of Adelaide Press Barr Smith Library The University of Adelaide South Australia 5005 press@adelaide.edu.au w.adelaide.edu.au/press The University of Adelaide Press publishes externally refereed scholarly books by staff of the University of Adelaide. It aims to maximise the accessibility to its best research by publishing works through the internet as free downloads and as high quality printed volumes on demand. Electronic Index: this book is available from the website as a down‐loadable PDF with fully searchable text. Please use the electronic version to serve as the index.

© 2011 The Authors

This book is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, criticism or review as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission. Address all inquiries to the Director at the above address.

For the full Cataloguing‐in‐Publication data please contact National Library of Australia Magnesium in the central nervous system / edited by Robert Vink and Mihai Nechifor. I Vink, Robert. II Nechifor, Mihai. 1 Magnesium—Physiological effect. 2 Magnesium in the body. 3 Central nervous system.

Book design: Robert Vink Cover design: Emma Spoehr. Photograph with permission, istockphoto.com Paperback printed by Griffin Press, South Australia

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System v

List of Contributors

Bulent Ahishali Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology & Department of

Histology and Embryology, Capa 34093 Istanbul, Turkey

Jean- ‐Pierre Bali Université Montpellier I, 34000 Montpellier, France Jean- ‐Marie Billard Université Paris Descartes, Faculté de Médecine René Descartes, Centre de Psychiatrie et

Neurosciences, UMR 894, Paris, 75014, France

Kym Campbell Centre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, University of Western Australia & Australian

Neuromuscular Research Institute, Department of Neurosurgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia

Yves Cazals UMR6231, Université Paul Cézanne, Marseille, France Zheng Chen Department of Psychiatry & Institute for Geriatric Clinic and Rehabilitation, Beijing Geriatric Hospital,

Dehua Chui Neuroscience Research Institute & Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory for Neuroscience,

Ministry of Education & Ministry of Public Health, Health Science Center, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China

Naomi L. Cook Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences & Adelaide Centre for Neuroscience

Research, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

Frances Corrigan Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences & Adelaide Centre for Neuroscience

Research, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

Magdalena D. Cuciureanu Department of Pharmacology, “Gr. T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy 16, Iasi, Romania Sang- ‐Hwan Do Department of Anesthesiology and Pain medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital,

Seongnam, South Korea

George A. Eby III George Eby Research Institute, 14909- ‐C Fitzhugh Road, Austin, Texas, USA Karen L. Eby George Eby Research Institute, 14909- ‐C Fitzhugh Road, Austin, Texas, USA Mounir N. Ghabriel Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences & Adelaide Centre for Neuroscience

Research, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

Tomoyo Hashimoto Department of Internal Medicine (Neurology and Rheumatology), Shinshu University School of

Medicine, Nagano, Japan

Michael R. Hoane Restorative Neuroscience Laboratory, Brain and Cognitive Science Program, Department of

Psychology Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA

Xavier Holy Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de Brétigny, Brétigny- ‐sur- ‐Orge, France Stefano Iotti Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, dell’Invecchiamento e Malattie Nefrologiche, Università di Bologna, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma, Italy

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System vi

Mehmet Kaya Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology & Department of

Histology and Embryology, Capa 34093 Istanbul, Turkey

Neville W. Knuckey Centre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, University of Western Australia, & Australian

Neuromuscular Research Institute, Department of Neurosurgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia

Marzia Leidi Università di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Luigi Sacco, Via G.B. Grassi 74, 20157 Milano,

Italy

Yi Liu Neuroscience Research Institute & Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory for Neuroscience,

Ministry of Education & Ministry of Public Health, Health Science Center, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China

Jeanette A.M. Maier Università di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Luigi Sacco, Via G.B. Grassi 74, 20157 Milano,

Italy

Emil Malucelli Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, dell’Invecchiamento e Malattie Nefrologiche, Università di Bologna,

Italy

Lucia Mastrototaro Istituto di Patologia Generale e Centro di Ricerche Oncologiche Giovanni XXIII, Università Cattolica del

Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy

Alexander Mauskop The New York Headache Center, 30 East 76th Street, New York, NY, USA Bruno P. Meloni Centre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, University of Western Australia, & Australian

Neuromuscular Research Institute, Department of Neurosurgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia

Marianne Mousain- ‐Bosc Ecole de l’ADN, Museum d’Histoire Naturelle de Nîmes, 19, Grand’rue, 30000 Nimes, France Harald Murck Clinic of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany Hyo- ‐Seok Na Department of Anesthesiology and Pain medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital,

Seongnam, South Korea

Mihai Nechifor Department of Pharmacology, “Gr. T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania Kiyomitsu Oyanagi Department of Brain Disease Research, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Nagano Japan Victoria Papadopol Regional Centre of Public Health Iaşi, Romania Florent Raffin Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de la Tronche, La Tronche, France Andrea M.P. Romani Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University,

Cleveland, Ohio USA

Harry Rubin Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Life Sciences Addition, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

Jung- ‐Hee Ryu Department of Anesthesiology and Pain medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital,

Seongnam, South Korea

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System vii

Jeffrey L. Saver UCLA Stroke Center, Geffen School of Medicine of the University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Isabelle Sendowski Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de la Tronche, La Tronche, France Christian Siatka Ecole de l’ADN, Museum d’Histoire Naturelle de Nîmes, 19, grand’rue, 30000 Nimes, France Yuetao Song Department of Psychiatry & Institute for Geriatric Clinic and Rehabilitation, Beijing Geriatric Hospital,

Sidney Starkman UCLA Stroke Center, Geffen School of Medicine of the University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Valentina Trapani Istituto di Patologia Generale e Centro di Ricerche Oncologiche Giovanni XXIII, Università Cattolica del

Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy

Walter M. van den Bergh Department of Intensive Care, Academic Medical Center, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands Corinna van den Heuvel Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences & Adelaide Centre for Neuroscience

Research, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

Robert Vink Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences & Adelaide Centre for Neuroscience

Research, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

Weishan Wang Department of Psychiatry & Institute for Geriatric Clinic and Rehabilitation, Beijing Geriatric Hospital,

Federica I. Wolf Istituto di Patologia Generale e Centro di Ricerche Oncologiche Giovanni XXIII, Università Cattolica del

Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy

Lisa A. Yablon The New York Headache Center, 30 East 76th Street, New York, NY, USA Huan Yang Neuroscience Research Institute & Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory for Neuroscience,

Ministry of Education & Ministry of Public Health, Health Science Center, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China

Jia Yu Department of Psychiatry & Institute for Geriatric Clinic and Rehabilitation, Beijing Geriatric Hospital,

Honglin Zhang Department of Psychiatry & Institute for Geriatric Clinic and Rehabilitation, Beijing Geriatric Hospital, Beijing 100095, China

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System viii

Preface

The brain is the most complex organ in our body. Indeed, it is perhaps the most complex structure we have ever encountered in nature. Both structurally and functionally, there are many peculiarities that differentiate the brain from all other organs. The brain is our connection to the world around us and by governing nervous system and higher function, any disturbance induces severe neurological and psychiatric disorders that can have a devastating effect on quality of life.

Our understanding of the physiology and biochemistry of the brain has improved dramatically in the last two decades. In particular, the critical role of cations, including magnesium, has become evident, even if incompletely understood at a mechanistic level. The exact role and regulation of magnesium, in particular, remains elusive, largely because intracellular levels are so difficult to quantify routinely. Nonetheless, the importance of magnesium to normal central nervous system activity is self- ‐evident given the complicated homeostatic mechanisms that maintain the concentration of this cation within strict limits essential for normal physiology and metabolism. There is also considerable accumulating evidence to suggest that alterations to some brain functions in both normal and pathological conditions may be linked to alterations in local magnesium concentration.

This book, containing chapters written by some of the foremost experts in the field of magnesium research, brings together the latest in experimental and clinical magnesium research as it relates to the central nervous system. It offers a complete and updated view of magnesium’s involvement in central nervous system function and in so doing, brings together two main pillars of contemporary neuroscience research, namely providing an explanation for the molecular mechanisms involved in brain function, and emphasizing the connections between the molecular changes and behaviour.

It is the untiring efforts of those magnesium researchers who have dedicated their lives to unravelling the mysteries of magnesium’s role in biological systems that has inspired the collation of this volume of work.

Robert Vink Mihai Nechifor

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System

List of Contributors v Preface viii Section 1: Magnesium in Normal Brain

Chapter 1 Free magnesium concentration in human brain 3

Stefano Iotti and Emil Malucelli

Chapter 2 Intracellular magnesium homeostasis 13 Andrea M.P. Romani

Chapter 3 Magnesium transport across the blood- ‐brain barriers 59 Mounir N. Ghabriel and Robert Vink

Chapter 4 Intracellular free Mg2+ and MgATP2- ‐ in coordinate control of protein 75 synthesis and cell proliferation

Harry Rubin

Chapter 5 Magnesium and the Yin- ‐Yang interplay in apoptosis 85 Valentina Trapani, Lucia Mastrototaro and Federica I. Wolf

Chapter 6 Brain magnesium homeostasis as a target for reducing cognitive 99 ageing

Section 2: Magnesium in Neurological Diseases

Chapter 7 The role of magnesium therapy in learning and memory 115

Michael R. Hoane

Chapter 8 The role of magnesium in headache and migraine 125 Lisa A. Yablon and Alexander Mauskop

Chapter 9 Magnesium in edema and blood- ‐brain barrier disruption 135 Mehmet Kaya and Bulent Ahishali

Chapter 10 Magnesium and hearing loss 145 Isabelle Sendowski, Xavier Holy, Florent Raffin and Yves Cazals

Chapter 11 The role of magnesium in pain 157 Hyo- ‐Seok Na, Jung- ‐Hee Ryu and Sang- ‐Hwan Do

Chapter 12 The role of magnesium in traumatic CNS injury 167 Naomi L. Cook, Frances Corrigan and Corinna van den Heuvel

Chapter 13 The use of magnesium in experimental cerebral ischaemia 181 Bruno P. Meloni, Kym Campbell and Neville W. Knuckey

Chapter 14 Magnesium in subarachnoid hemorrhage 193 Walter M. van den Bergh

Chapter 15 Magnesium in clinical stroke 205 Jeffrey L. Saver and Sidney Starkman

Chapter 16 Magnesium in cancer: more questions than answers 217 Marzia Leidi, Federica I. Wolf and Jeanette A.M. Maier

Chapter 17 Magnesium in Parkinson’s disease: an update in clinical and basic 229 aspects

Kiyomitsu Oyanagi and Tomoyo Hashimoto

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System

Section 3: Involvement of Magnesium in Psychiatric Diseases

Chapter 18 Magnesium and Alzheimer’s disease 239

Dehua Chui, Zheng Chen, Jia Yu, Honglin Zhang, Weishan Wang

Yuetao Song, Huan Yang and Yi Liu

Chapter 19 Magnesium and stress 251 Magdalena D. Cuciureanu and Robert Vink

Chapter 20 Magnesium in neuroses 269 Victoria Papadopol and Mihai Nechifor

Chapter 21 Magnesium, hyperactivity and autism in children 283 Marianne Mousain- ‐Bosc, Christian Siatka and Jean- ‐Pierre Bali

Chapter 22 Magnesium in psychoses (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) 303 Mihai Nechifor

Chapter 23 Magnesium and major depression 313 George A. Eby III, Karen L. Eby and Harald Murck

Chapter 24 Magnesium in drug abuse and addiction 331 Mihai Nechifor

Electronic Index: this book is available from the website adelaide.edu.au/press as a free down- ‐ loadable PDF with fully searchable text. Please use the electronic version to serve as the index.

Section 1

Magnesium in Normal Brain

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System Chapter 1

Free magnesium concentration in the human brain

Stefano Iotti 1,2, and Emil Malucelli 1

1 Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, dell’Invecchiamento e Malattie Nefrologiche, Università di Bologna, Italy.

(Parte 1 de 10)

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