Aves do parque nacional de limpopo

Aves do parque nacional de limpopo

(Parte 1 de 2)

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BY EDSON ZACARIAS MUTANE (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)

AUTHOR: EDSON ZACARIAS MUTANE (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)

Coordinator BILL SWANEPOEL (Wildlife Manager)

Manual of descriptive and indepth research about the most common bird species found in the Limpopo National Park

I, Edson Zacarias Mutane, declare for my honour that this manual belongs to my own initiative, after learning and reading other bird conservation manuals, therefore, all secondary information used in this manual, it has been duly recognized and clarified in the methodologies and is In bibliographical references. In addition, this manual does not authorize for commercial uses.

Edson Zacarias Mutane

Massingir, 2017

It is inevitable to recognize the combined effort of distinct individuals that without which the progeny of the present research would not be carried out, therefore:

I thank God in the first place, because he inspired me produtictively what made possible the concvretization of this research (James 3:13);

I Thank the Directorate of the Limpopo National Park, who agreed me to hold this arduous research inside the park;

I thank colleagues from the Limpopo National Park in general and, in particular, colleagues from the wildlife protection sector, especially the departments of Wildlife management and Patrol, namely: Eng. Jose Zavala, Mr. Guilherme Maluleque, Mr. Izac Sibinde, Mr. Antonio Amaral, Sonia Maluleque and Diocorcia Chaguala, for the reception and spirit of friendship, which we created during the period of research, thank you very much!

I thank my friend dr Carlos Magaia, who worked with me during the research, by all support. Thank you!

A special thanks to Mr. Eric Madamalala, the operation & wildlife manager, for the reinforcement, social and scientific councils, as well as for bearing my weaknesses for which this research would not be carried out; thank you very much!

Finally, thanks to Mr. Bill Swanepoel, for agreeing to coordinate this research, in which without his support would take years and years; thank you very much.

I dedicate this work To:

My wife Sara Jonas Manave; My son Zacarias Edson Mutane, "Much inspiration".

iv

This guide for bird species that occur in Limpopo National Park is the results of arduous research carried out in this conservation area with purpose of identify all bird species and its conservation status to futurely determine the appropriate strategies for its conservation in long terms. Therefore, were used the combination if distinct methods, namely: identification using boats for aquatic species, using vehicle for terrestrial and long located species, linear transect on foot, pointed fixed counter for attractive strategic point like water and fruits trees, including whistlings for complicated identification species. However, for well known species like guinefowls, kori bustrard and ostrich were enterviewed the rangers and local communities. The work took over 3 months with a lot of challenges.

Therefore were identified 243 species distribuited in 24 orders, with 10 threatened species, 8 belonging to order Accipitriformes (1 in endangered status, 3 in critical, 3 vulnerable and 1 near-threatened), 1 belonging to Bucerotiformes (Vulnerable) and 1 belonging to Ciconiiformes (Vulnerable).

1. TS: 1- White backed vulture………………………………...Critical3
2. TS: 2-Lappet-faced vulture………………………..Endengered ................... 3
3. TS: 3- White headed vulture………………………..………..Critical4
4. TS: 4Hooded vulture (Abutre-de-capuz)…………………...Critical4
5. TS: 5Bateleur (Águia-sem-rabo)……………………..Near- threatened6
6. TS: 6Martial eagle (Águia-belicosa)…………………Vulnerable ..................... 6
7. TS: 7: Steppe eagle (Águia-das-estepes)……………..…vulnerable7
8TS: 8Secretary bird (Secretário)…………………..……….Vulnerable ................... 16
9TS: 9 - Southern ground hornbill (Calau-gigante)….…….Vulnerable…. .............. 2

LIST OF THREATENED BIRD SPECIES IN THE PARK (TS) 10. TS: 10- Woolly-necked stork…………………………...…Vulnerable ................... 36

DECLARATIONi
ACKNOWLEDGMENTSi
DEDICATIONi
SUMMARYiv
LIST OF THREATENED BIRD SPECIES IN THE PARK (TS)v
INTRODUCTION1
i. Contextualization1
i. Work Metodology2
I. ACCIPITRIFORMES3
I. ANSERIFORMES17
I. APODIFORMES20
IV. BUCEROTIFORMES2
V. CAPRIMULGIFORMES26
VI. CHARADRIIFORMES28
VII. CICONIFORMES35
VIII. COLIIFORMES39
IX. COLUMBIFORMES40
X. CORACIIFORMES4
XI. CUCULIFORMES53
XII. GALIIFORMES5
XIII. GRUIFORMES60
XIV. MUSOPHAGIFORMES62
XV. OTIDIFORMES63
XVI. PASSERIFORMES65
a) Aerial passerines65
c) Woodland (tall trees) passerines67
d) Thickets passerines70

INDEX e) Scrub passerines ................................ ................................ ............................. 74

g) Thornveld passerines86
h) Long Savanah passerines92
i) Nectar (flower) passerines94
j) Weaver nesting passerines97
k) Ground (seed) passerines100
XVII. PELECANIFORMES110
XVIII. PICIFORMES118
XIX. PODICIPEDIFORMES122
X. PSITTACIFORMES123
XXI. PTEROCLIFORMES124
XI. STRIGIFORMES125
XI. STRUTHIONIFORMES129
RESEARCH LIMITATIONS132

f) Riverine passerines ................................ ................................ .......................... 85 BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............. 133

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)1

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

INTRODUCTION i. Contextualization

The ecologic and socio-economic relevance of wildlife resources demands it conservation to guarantee the wellbeing of the present and future generations, then, were created conservation areas, namely, national parks and reserve games.

However, even with protected areas, the wildlife resources continue being threatened and many of it are extinguishing, due to illegal hunting, uncontrolled burning, desertification, etc. These activities destroy the habitats and kill species, disturbing the function of the ecosystem and directly creating problems for well-being of men.

At other hand, the presence of birds in natural environments determines the quality of ecosystem, however, in many areas of conservation, including Limpopo National Park, many bird species of extreme socio-ecological and cultural importance are extinguishing, because the managers doesn‟t concern much for birds, but only in large mammals like rhinos. Generally the extinction of these species takes effect after a long period of disappearance, because the species that exists in that area are not known even its conservation status. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has already classified almost all species of birds. Therefore, it is up to the managers to identify the existing species, to analyse their conservation status, and subsequently to establish conservation measures that guarantee their multiplication in the long term, considering future generations.

Therefore, is in this vein that the present research was carried out, which was inspired by the identification of all the bird species that occur in the Limpopo National Park, and its conservation status, and then to develop strategies that are consistent with its conservation.

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)2

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park” i. Work Metodology For this guide the identification were based in two methods, as described below:

1. In Field

To identify the specie in its habitat were used guide for birds of Southern Africa (check the bibliographic references), were the specie were viewed, identified and recorded in notebook. This process took over 3 months. The identification was carried out during the period recommended by other ornithologists, from 05:0-10:0AM and from 03:30- 05:0 PM, during April to July.

Methods: About methods, were used combination of methods, namely: (1) Linear transect to different types of habitat (using boats for aquatic birds, vehicle for terrestrial birds and foot in small distances); and (2) Fixed pointed count in attractive locals like waters and fruits tree.

2. In Laboratory

After the identification, all data collected in field were processed and organized. For the species in which was difficult to take a picture, it was accessed in the internet using Google images. The downloaded images were high quality that which require not license, which were readjusted in paint program and tagged in its species.

Also were used Xeno-canto site, to hear if the sound matches with the photo of identified species. Therefore, all books, manuals and links used to get name and photos of birds viewed are listed in bibliography‟s references.

Used materials: Field guides for birds, notebook and pen, binoculars and photography camera. In laboratory were used computer, and some programs like paint and google image.

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)3

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

1. TS: 1- White backed vulture

(Abutre-de-rabadilha-branca)

Gyps africanus) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusGyps
Diet:carcasses of animals which it finds

Species G. africanus Voice: cackles and hisses commonly silent, Length: 90-100cm, Weight: 4,6-6,6kg by soaring over savannah & also scraps from human habitations Behaviour: Prefer woodlands (Scavengers) Conservation status: critical

2. TS: 2-Lappet-faced vulture

(Abutre-real)

(Torgos tracheliotos) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusTorgos
Voice:mostly silent,
Length:98-115cm,
Weight:4,5-8,5kg,
Diet:animal carcasses, found by sight or

Species: T. tracheliotos Wingspan: 2,6-2,8m watching other vultures Behaviour: Savannahs and opened woodlands Conservation Status: endendered

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)4

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

3. TS: 3- White headed vulture

(Abutre-de-cabeça-branca) (Trigonoceps occipitalis)

Details

OrderAccipitriformes
Voice:silent, shrill whistles & chattering

Family Accipitridae Genus Trigonoceps Species: T. occipitalis

Length:92-96cm,
Weight:3,3-5,3kg,
Diet:Scavenger, but predator when

with other vultures, Wingspan: 2-2,3m, possible Behaviour: Woodlands with tall trees Conservation status: Critical

4. TS: 4Hooded vulture (Abutre-de-capuz)

(Necrosyrtes monachus) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusNecrosyrtes
Species:N. monachus
Voice:silent, whistling at nest,
Length:65-75cm,
Weight:1,8-2,6kg,
predators to scavenge the rest

Wingspan: 1,7-1,8m Diet: Scavenger by soaring over savannah and around human habitation Behaviour: Prefer areas with more Conservation status: Critical

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)5

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

5. African fish eagle (Águia-pesqueira africana)

(Haliaeetus vocifer) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusHaliaeetus
Voice:“kwóooow-kworiyo-kowo” repeated,
Length:63-73cm,
Weight:2-3,8kg,
Behaviour:Aquatic

Species: H. vocifer Wingspan: 1,9m Diet: bird species (goliath herons, ducks, flamingos, small turtles and terrapins), baby crocodiles, lizards, frogs, monkeys & chickens.

6. Western osprey (Águia-pesqueira)

(Pandion haliaetus) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyPandionidae
GenusPandion
Species:P. haliaetus
Voice:silent-shrill whistles,
Length:5-70cm,
Weight:1,9-2,9kg,
Diet:fish (9%), rodents, rabbits,

Wingspan: 1,7-1,8m hares, amphibians, other birds, and small reptiles. Behaviour: Migrant in winter from Africa to America and Europe Note: Aquatic bird

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)6

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

7. TS: 5- Bateleur (Águia-sem-rabo)

(Terathopius ecaudatus) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusTerathopius
Length:5-70cm,
Weight:1,9-2,9kg

Species: T. ecaudatus Voice: silent, noise wing beats: „‟kowwah‟‟ Diet: Hunter and scavenger, (small mammals, reptiles, birds and frogs) Behaviour: solitaire, mixed in carcasses feed Wingspan: 1,7-1,8m Conservation status: Near threatened

8. TS: 6- Martial eagle (Águia-belicosa) (Polemaetus bellicosus)

Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusPolemaetus
Species:P. bellicosus

Voice: Mostly silent, rapid „‟klowee, kokokooorrr, repeated, Length: 80-98cm, Wingspan 1,5-1,8m Weight: 2,6-4,2kg, Diet: diversified: snakes (black & green mambas), birds (young ostrich, kori bustards francolins, guinea-fowl, chicken), mammals (young impala, duikers, dikdiks, young baboons, young warthogs, young goats Note: It‟s the World's most powerful avian predator Conservation status: Vulnerable Ndau language name: Hokotola

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)7

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

9. TS: 7: Steppe eagle (Águia-das-estepes)

(Aquila nipalensis) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusAquila
Species:A. nipalensis
Voice:silent
Length:70-84cm,
Weight:2-3kg,
Note:Migrant, winter in Africa,
Diet:fresh carrion predator: rodents,

Wingspan: 1,7-2,6m summer in Europe, small mammals (hare), birds (partridges) Conservation status: Vulnerable

10. Lesser spotted eagle (Águia-pomerana)

(Clanga pomarina) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
Genus:Clanga
Species:C. pomarina
Voice:silent
Length:58-65cm,
Weight:1,1-2,1kg,
Diet:Small mammals & birds

Wingspan: 1,3-1,7m Behaviour: Migrant, winter in Africa, summer in Europe Mark: Crossed wings like „‟V‟‟

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)8

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

1. African hawk eagle (Águia-dominó)

(Aquila spilogaster) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusAquila
Species:A. spilogaster
Voice:scramed „‟kee-ah‟‟ musical
Length:60-68cm,
Weight:1,2-1,7kg,
Diet:reptiles, invertebrates, small

„‟klee-klee-klee‟‟ Wingspan: 1,2m birds, Behaviour: Prefer woodlands with tall trees

12. Brown snake-eagle (Águia-cobreira-castanha)

(Circaetus cinereus) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusCircaetus

Species: C. cinereus Voice: Commonly silent, croaking „‟hok-hok-hok‟‟ in flight, Legth: 70-75cm, Weight: 1,6-2,4kg, Diet: snakes (cobras), lizards and small mammals Behaviour: solitary, excellent viewers

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)9

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

13. Black-chested snake-eagle

(Águia-cobreira-de-peito-preto)

(Circaetus pectoralis) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
Genus:Circaetus
Species:C. pectoralis
Length:63-68cm,

Subfamily Circaetinae Voice: quick „‟kwo-kwo-kwo-kweu‟‟ Wingspan: 1,8m Weight: 1,2-2,2kg Diet: snakes, lizards, small mammals and frogs Behaviour: savannahs with tallest trees

14. Black kite (Milhafre-preto)

(Milvus migrans) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusMilvus
SpeciesM. migrans
Voice:silent,
Length:51-60cm, 6
Weight:50-920g,
Note:migrant in summer
Diet:birds, bats, and rodents

Behaviour: attracted to smoke and fires, to seek escaping prey Note: World‟s most abundant species in

Accipitriformes

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)10

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

15. Yellow billed kite

(Milvus aegyptius) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusMilvus
SpeciesM. aegyptius
Length:50-58cm,
Weight:570-760g
Diet:small vertebrates and insects, much of

Voice: high pitched, shrill whinnying, rarely.

Behaviour:Common forests and migrant in

which is scavenged. summer

16. European honey buzzard (Tartaranhão-apívoro)

(Pernis apivorus) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusPernis
SpeciesP. apivorus
Voice:silent, occasionally „‟meeeeu‟‟
Length:52-60cm,
Weight:680-810g

Diet: Larvae and nests of wasps and hornets, small mammals, reptiles and birds, Note: summer migrant to Europe and western Asia, wintering in Africa Behaviour: prefer closed areas to get its prey

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)1

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

17. Black shouldered kite

(Elanus axillaris) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusElanus
Species:E. axillaris
Voice:High pitched „‟peeeeu‟‟, soft „‟weeeep‟‟,
Length:30-33cm,
Weight:210-290g,
Diet:grasshoppers, rats, small reptiles, birds,

rasping „‟wee-aah‟‟, Wingspan: 75-85cm, and rarely rabbits, mice and mouse-sized mammals Behaviour: nomad, solitaire or pairs

18. Lizard buzzard (Gavião-papa-lagartos)

(Kaupifalco monogrammicus) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusKaupifalco
Species:K. monogrammicus
Voice:musical „‟weeeeeoo, wot-wot-wot-wot-
Length:35-37cm,
Weight:220-360g,

wot‟‟, rapid „‟weee-weee-weee‟‟, distinctive, Diet: medium & small sized birds (spotted dove & passerines), small mammals (shrews, rats) and small reptiles (lizards) Behaviour: solitaire & commonly silent

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)12

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

19. Dark chanting goshawk (Açor-cantor)

(Melierax metabates) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusMelierax
Voice:„‟keeu-kleeu, klu-klu-klu‟‟
Length:43-50cm
Weight:480-880g,

Species: M. metabates Wingspan: 1m, Diet: medium & small sized birds (spotted dove & passerines), small mammals (shrews, rats) and small reptiles (lizards) Behaviour: solitaire, opened areas to detect preys

20. Gabor goshawk (Melierax gabar)

(Micronisus gabar) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusMicronisus
Species:M. gabar
Voice:kew-he, kew-heeee, kji-kji-kji,
Length:28-36cm,

Wingspan: 1m Weight: 110-220g, Diet: small birds, small mammals, reptiles, and insects also steal bird‟s chicks on nest Behaviour: Singly in opened forests with abundant of small birds Note: small than dark-chanting goshawk

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)13

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

21. Black sparrow hawk (Açor-preto)

(Accipiter melanoleucus) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusAccipiter
Species:A. melanoleucus
Voice:rapid “kee-yiep, kek-kek-kek-kek”,
Length:46-58cm,
Weight:510-1000 g
Diet:birds of moderate size, (pigeons and

doves) small mammals (bats, rodents and juvenile mongooses). Behaviour: Prefer opened areas to hunt preys, singly or in pair

2. African goshawk (Açor-africano)

(Accipiter tachiro) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusAccipiter
SpeciesA. tachiro
Voice:quick-quick-quick,
Length:36-44cm,
Weight:180-500g,

Wingspan: 70-75cm Diet: birds up to the size of hornbills or francolins, small mammals, lizards & invertebrates. Behaviour: Singly or in pairs

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)14
23. Shikra(Gavião-shikra)

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

(Accipiter badius) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusAccipiter
SpeciesA. badius
Weight:80-170g,

Voice: keeewik-keeewik-keeewik, Length: 28-30cm, Diet: rodents, small birds, small reptiles (izards, small snakes) and insects. Behaviour: solitaires, in medium sized trees

24. Little sparrow hawk (Gavião-pequeno)

(Accipiter minullus) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusAccipiter
SpeciesA. minullus
Length:23-27cm,
Weight:8-120g,
Diet:small birds, lizards,

Voice: „‟tu-tu-tu-tu-tu, kew-kewkew‟‟, Wingspan: 40-45cm Behaviour: solitary Note: smallest in accipiter genus

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)15

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

25. African harrier hawk

(Secretário-pequeno)

(Polyboroides typus) Details

OrderAccipitriformes
FamilyAccipitridae
GenusPolyboroides
Species:P. typus

Voice: whistled „‟peer, suuu-e-o‟‟ Length: 60-66cm, Weight: 620-950g,

Diet: Lizards, small snakes, barbets and woodhoopoes, feral pigeons, house sparrows and eastern gray squirrels

Behaviour: Found in woodlands or savannahs with tall trees, climbing

26. Peregrine falcon (Falcão-peregrino)

(Falco peregrinus) Details

OrderFalconiformes
FamilyFalconidae
GenusFalco

Species: F. peregrinus Voice: „‟krrchuck krrchuck, kak-kak-kak-kak‟‟, Length: 34-44cm, Weight: 500-1300g

Diet: medium-sized birds such as pigeons and doves, waterfowl, songbirds, and waders

Behaviour: Sometimes nocturnal hunter, migrant bird

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)16

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

27. TS: 8-Secretary bird (Secretário)

(Sagittarius serpentarius) Details

Order:Accipitriformes
Family:Sagittariidae
Genus:Sagittarius
Species:S. serpentarius
Voice:silent,
Length:1,25-1,50m,
Weight:2,8-5kg,
Diet:Insects, mammals ranging in size from mice

Wingspan: 191–220 cm Conservation status: vulnerable (endemic) Behaviour: Uncommon, single or pair in savannah to hares and mongoose, crabs, lizards, snakes, tortoises, young birds, bird eggs, and sometimes dead animals killed in grass or bush fires

Note: Largest terrestrial bird of prey

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)17

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

28. White faced whistling duck (Irerê)

(Dendrocygna viduata) Details

OrderAnseriformes
FamilyAnatidae
GenusDendrocygna
Length:4-48cm,
Weight:550-900g

Species: D. viduata Voice: noise birds with 3 notes distinctive „‟whit-wee-weeer‟‟, Diet: seeds and other plant food Behaviour: Prefer aquatic regions with

29. Spur winged goose (Pato-ferrão)

(Plectropterus gambensis) Details

OrderAnseriformes
FamilyAnatidae
SubfamilyPlectropterinae
GenusPlectropterus
Species:P. gambensis
Voice:wheeze whistle in flight
Length:75-100cm
Weight:2,5-7kg
Diet:seeds of grasses, sedges and

aquatic plants, agricultural grains, fruit, and tuberous crops, small fish and insects Note: poisonous due to its diet of blister beetles, largest goose Behaviour: aquatic, and migrant to full water region

By Mutane, Edson Zacarias (Wildlife & Ecotourism Manager)18

“The most common birds of Limpopo National Park”

(Parte 1 de 2)

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