Atmosfera, Tempo e Clima

Atmosfera, Tempo e Clima

(Parte 2 de 9)

Most of the figures were prepared by the cartographic and photographic staffs in the Geography Departments at Cambridge University (Mr I. Agnew, Mr R. Blackmore, Mr R. Coe, Mr I. Gulley, Mrs S.

Gutteridge, Miss L. Judge, Miss R. King, Mr C. Lewis, Mrs P. Lucas, Miss G. Seymour, Mr A. Shelley and Miss J. Wyatt and, especially, Mr M. Young); at Southampton University (Mr A. C. Clarke, Miss B. Manning and Mr R. Smith); and at the University of Colorado, Boulder (Mr T. Wiselogel). Every edition of this book, through the seventh, has been graced by the illustrative imagination and cartographic expertise of Mr M. Young of the Department of Geography, Cambridge University, to whom we owe a considerable debt of gratitude.

Thanks are also due to student assistants Jennifer

Gerull, Matthew Applegate and Amara Frontczak, at the NSIDC, for word processing, assistance with figures and permission letters for the eighth edition.

Our grateful thanks go to our families for their constant encouragement and forbearance.

The authors wish to thank the following learned societies, editors, publishers, scientific organizations and individuals for permission to reproduce figures, tables and plates. Every effort has been made to trace the current copyright holders, but in view of the many changes in publishing companies we invite these bodies and individuals to inform us of any omissions, oversights or errors in this list.

Learned societies

American Association for the Advancement of Science for Figure 7.32 from Science.

American Meteorological Society for Figures 2.2, 3.21, 3.2, 3.26C, 5.1. 7.21, 9.16, 9.29, 10.34 and 13.8 from the Bulletin; for Figure 4.12 from Journal of Hydrometeorology; and for Figures 6.12, 6.13, 7.8, xiii

Acknowledgements

7.25, 7.28, 8.1, 9.6, 9.10, 9.24, 1.5, 1.1 and 1.3 from the Monthly Weather Review; for Figure 7.28 from the Journal of Physical Oceanography; for Figures 9.2 and 9.4 from Met. Monogr. by H. Riehl et al.; for Figures 9.8 and 10.38 from the Journal of Applied Meteorology; for Figures 9.9, 9.15 and 9.17 from Extratropical Cyclonesby C. W. Newton and E. D. Holopainen (eds); for Figures 9.34 and 1.54 from the Journal of Atmospheric Sciences; for Figures 10.24 and 13.20 from the Journal of Climate and for Figure 10.39 from Arctic Meteorology and Climatologyby D. H. Bromwich and C. R. Stearns (eds).

American Geographical Society for Figure 2.16 from the Geographical Review.

American Geophysical Union for Figures 2.3, 2.1, 3.26A, 3.26B and 5.19 from the Journal of Geophysical Research; for Figures 3.13 and 13.3 from the Review of Geophysics and Space Physics; and for Figure 13.6 from Geophysical Research Letters.

American Planning Association for Figure 12.30 from the Journal.

Association of American Geographers for Figure 4.20 from the Annals.

Climatic Research Center, Norwich, UK, for Figure 10.15.

Geographical Association for Figure 10.4 from

Geography.

Geographical Society of China for Figures 1.34 and 1.37.

Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, for

Figure 1.28.

International Glaciological Society for Figure 12.6. Royal Society of Canada for Figure 3.15 from Special

Publication 5.

Royal Society of London for Figure 9.27 from the

Proceedings, Section A.

Royal Meteorological Society for Figures 4.7, 4.8, 5.9, 5.13, 5.14, 9.30, 10.5, 10.12, 1.5 and 12.20 from Weather; for Figures 5.16 and 10.9, from the Journal of Climatology; Royal Meteorological Society for Figures 9.12, 10.7, 10.8, 1.3 and 12.14 from the Quarterly Journal; for Figure 10.28; and for Figure 13.7 from Weather.

US National Academy of Sciences for Figures 13.4 and 13.5 from Natural Climate Variability on Decade-to- Century Time Scalesby P. Grootes.

Editors

Advances in Space Researchfor Figures 3.8 and 5.12. American Scientistfor Figure 1.49. Climatic Changefor Figure 9.30. Climate Monitorfor Figure 13.13. Climate–Vegetation Atlas of North Americafor Figures 10.19 and 10.23.

Erdkundefor Figures 1.21, 12.31 and A1.2B. Endeavour forFigure 5.18. Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternariafor Figure 13.24.

International Journal of Climatology(John Wiley

& Sons, Chichester) for Figures 4.16, 10.3 and A1.1.

Japanese Progress in Climatologyfor Figure 12.28. Meteorologische Rundschaufor Figure 12.9. Meteorologiya Gidrologiya(Moscow) for Figure 1.17. Meteorological Magazinefor Figures 9.1 and 10.6. Meteorological Monographsfor Figures 9.2 and 9.4. New Scientistfor Figures 9.25 and 9.28 Sciencefor Figure 7.32. Tellusfor Figures 10.10, 10.1 and 1.25.

Publishers

Academic Press, New York, for Figures 9.13, 9.14, and 1.10 from Advances in Geophysics; for Figure 9.31; and for Figure 1.15 from Monsoon Meteorology by C. S. Ramage.

Allen & Unwin, London, for Figures 3.14 and 3.16B from Oceanography for Meteorologistsby the late H. V. Sverdrup.

Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, for Figure 7.27 from

Ocean Circulationby G. Bearman.

Cambridge University Press for Figures 2.4 and 2.8 from Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment 1992; for Figure 5.8 from Clouds, Rain and Rainmakingby B. J. Mason; for Figure 7.7 from World Weather and Climateby D. Riley and L. Spolton; for Figure 8.2 from Climate System Modellingby K. E. Trenberth; for Figure 10.30 from The Warm Desert Environmentby A. Goudie and J. Wilkinson; for Figure 1.52 from Teleconnections Linking Worldwide Climate Anomaliesby M. H. Glantz et al. (eds); for Figure 12.21 from Air: Composition and Chemistryby P. Brimblecombe (ed.); and for Figures 13.10, 13.14, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.21, 13.2 and 13.23.

xiv

Chapman and Hall for Figure 7.30 from Elements of Dynamic Oceanography; for Figure 10.40 from Encyclopedia of Climatologyby J. Oliver and R. W. Fairbridge (eds); and for Figure 9.2 from Weather Systemsby L. F. Musk.

The Controller, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office

(Crown Copyright Reserved) for Figure 4.3 from Geophysical Memoirs102 by J. K. Bannon and L. P. Steele; for the tephigram base of Figure 5.1 from RAFForm 2810; and for Figure 7.3 from Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlasby M. Bottomley et al.; for Figure 10.6 from the Meteorological Magazine; and for Figures 10.26 and 10.27 from Weather in the Mediterranean1, 2nd edn (1962).

CRC Press, Florida, for Figure 3.6 from Meteorology:

Theoretical and Appliedby E. Hewson and R. Longley.

Elsevier, Amsterdam, for Figure 10.29 from Climates of the Worldby D. Martyn; for Figure 10.37 from Climates of the Soviet Unionby P. E. Lydolph; for Figure 1.38 from Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology; for Figure 1.40 from Quarternary Research; and for Figures 1.46 and 1.47 from Climates of Central and South Americaby W. Schwerdtfeger (ed.).

Hutchinson, London, for Figure 12.27 from the Climate of Londonby T. J. Chandler; and for Figures 1.41 and 1.42 from The Climatology of West Africaby D. F. Hayward and J. S. Oguntoyinbo.

Institute of British Geographers for Figures 4.1 and 4.14 from the Transactions; and for Figure 4.21 from the Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975–76by J. C. Doornkamp and K. J. Gregory (eds).

Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Holland for

Figure 2.1 from Air–Sea Exchange of Gases and Particlesby P. S. Liss and W. G. N. Slinn (eds); and Figures 4.5 and 4.17 from Variations in the Global Water Budget, ed. A. Street-Perrott et al.

Longman, London, for Figure 7.17 from Contemporary

Climatologyby A. Henderson-Sellers and P. J. Robinson.

McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, for Figures 4.9 and 5.17 from Introduction to Meteorologyby S. Petterssen; and for Figure 7.23 from Dynamical and Physical Meteorologyby G. J. Haltiner and F. L. Martin.

Methuen, London, for Figures 3.19, 4.19 and 1.4 from Mountain Weather and Climateby R. G. Barry; for Figures 4.1, 7.18 and 7.20 from Models in Geographyby R. J. Chorley and P. Haggett (eds); for Figures 1.1 and 1.6 from Tropical Meteorology by H. Riehl; and for Figure 12.5.

North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, for

Figure 4.18 from the Journal of Hydrology.

Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, for Figure 10.35B from The Geophysics of Sea Iceby N. Untersteiner (ed.).

Princeton University Press for Figure 7.1 from The

Climate of Europe: Past, Present and Futureby H. Flöhn and R. Fantechi (eds).

D. Reidel, Dordrecht, for Figure 12.26 from Interactions of Energy and Climateby W. Bach, J. Pankrath and J. Williams (eds); for Figure 10.31 from Climatic Change.

Routledge, London, for Figure 1.51 from Climate

Since AD1500by R. S. Bradley and P. D. Jones (eds).

Scientific American Inc, New York, for Figure 2.12B by M. R. Rapino and S. Self; for Figure 3.2 by P. V. Foukal; and for Figure 3.25 by R. E. Newell.

Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, for Figures 1.2 and 1.24.

Springer-Verlag, Vienna and New York, for Figure 6.10 from Archiv für Meteorologie, Geophysik und Bioklimatologie.

University of California Press, Berkeley, for Figure 1.7 from Cloud Structure and Distributions over the Tropical Pacific Oceanby J. S. Malkus and H. Riehl.

University of Chicago Press for Figures 3.1, 3.5, 3.20, 3.27, 4.4B, 4.5, 12.8 and 12.10 from Physical Climatologyby W. D. Sellers.

Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, for

Figure 1.56 from The Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences and Astrogeologyby R. W. Fairbridge (ed.).

Walter De Gruyter, Berlin, for Figure 10.2 from

Allgemeine Klimageographieby J. Blüthgen.

John Wiley, Chichester, for Figures 2.7 and 2.10 from

The Greenhouse Effect, Climatic Change, and Ecosystemsby G. Bolin et al.; for Figures 10.9, 1.30, 1.43 and A1.1 from the Journal of Climatology.

John Wiley, New York, for Figures 3.3C and 5.10 from Introduction to Physical Geographyby A. N. Strahler; for Figure 3.6 from Meteorology, Theoretical and Appliedby E. W. Hewson and R. W. Longley; for Figure 7.31 from Ocean Science by K. Stowe; for Figures 1.16, 1.28, 1.29, 1.32 and 1.34 from Monsoonsby J. S. Fein and

P. L. Stephens (eds); and for Figure 1.30 from International Journal of Climatology.

The Wisconsin Press for Figure 10.20 from The Earth’s Problem Climates.

Organizations

Deutscher Wetterdienst, Zentralamt, Offenbach am

Main, for Figure 1.27.

National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, for

Figure 13.4.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

(NASA) for Figures 2.15 and 7.26.

Natural Environmental Research Council for Figure 2.6 from Our Future Worldand for Figure 4.4A from NERC News, July 1993by K. A. Browning.

New Zealand Alpine Club for Figure 5.15. New Zealand Meteorological Service, Wellington,

New Zealand, for Figures 1.26 and 1.57 from the Proceedings of the Symposium on Tropical Meteorologyby J. W. Hutchings (ed.).

Nigerian Meteorological Service for Figure 1.39 from

Technical Note 5.

NOAA-CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center for Figures 7.3, 7.4, 7.9, 7.10, 7.12, 7.15, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 9.32 and 13.9.

Quartermaster Research and Engineering Command,

Natick, MA., for Figure 10.17 by J. N. Rayner.

Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, for

Figures 6.14 and 10.1 from European Wind Atlasby I. Troen and E. L. Petersen.

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, for Figure 2.12A.

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization,

Rome, for Figure 12.17 from Forest Influences.

United States Department of Agriculture, Washington,

DC, for Figure 12.16 from Climate and Man.

United States Department of Commerce for Figure 10.13. United States Department of Energy, Washington, DC, for Figure 3.12.

United States Environmental Data Service for Figure 4.10.

United States Geological Survey, Washington, DC, for Figures 10.19, 10.21 and 10.23, mostly from Circular 1120-A.

University of Tokyo for Figure 1.35 from Bulletin of the Department of Geography.

World Meteorological Organization for Figure 3.24 from GARP Publications Series, Rept No. 16; for Figure 7.2; for Figure 1.50 from The Global Climate System 1982–84; and for Figure 13.1 from WMO Publication No. 537 by F. K. Hare.

Individuals

Dr R. M. Banta for Figure 6.12. Dr R. P. Beckinsale, of Oxford University, for suggested modification to Figure 9.7.

Dr B. Bolin, of the University of Stockholm, for Figure 2.7.

Prof. R. A. Bryson for Figure 10.15. The late Prof. M. I. Budyko for Figure 4.6. Dr G. C. Evans, of the University of Cambridge, for

Figure 12.18.

The late Prof. H. Flohn, of the University of Bonn, for

Figures 7.14 and 1.14.

Prof. S. Gregory, of the University of Sheffield, for

Figures 1.13 and 1.53.

Dr J. Houghton, formerly of the Meteorological Office,

Bracknell, for Figure 2.8 from Climate Change 1992.

Dr R. A. Houze, of the University of Washington, for

Figures 9.13 and 1.12.

Dr V. E. Kousky, of São Paulo, for Figure 1.48. Dr Y. Kurihara, of Princeton University, for Figure 1.10. Dr J. Maley, of the Université des Sciences et des

Techniques du Languedoc, for Figure 1.40.

Dr Yale Mintz, of the University of California, for

Figure 7.17.

Dr L. F. Musk, of the University of Manchester, for

Figures 9.2 and 1.9.

Dr T. R. Oke, of the University of British Columbia, for

Figures 6.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.5, 12.7, 12.15, 12.19, 12.2, 12.23, 12.24, 12.25 and 12.29.

Dr W. Palz for Figure 10.25. Mr D. A. Richter, of Analysis and Forecast Division,

National Meteorological Center, Washington, DC, for Figure 9.24.

Dr J. C. Sadler, of the University of Hawaii, for Figure 1.19.

The late Dr B. Saltzman, of Yale University, for Figure 8.4.

Dr Glenn E. Shaw, of the University of Alaska, for

Figure 2.1A.

Dr W. G. N. Slinn for Figure 2.1B. Dr A. N. Strahler, of Santa Barbara, California, for

Figures 3.3C and 5.10.

Dr R. T. Watson, of NASA, Houston, for Figures 3.3C and 3.4.

xvi

The atmosphere, vital to terrestrial life, envelops the earth to a thickness of only 1 per cent of the earth’s radius. It had evolved to its present form and composition at least 400 million years ago by which time a considerable vegetation cover had developed on land. At its base, the atmosphere rests on the ocean surface which, at present, covers some 70 per cent of the surface of the globe. Although air and water share somewhat similar physical properties, they differ in one important respect – air is compressible, water incompressible. Study of the atmosphere has a long history involving both observations and theory. Scientific measurements became possible only with the invention of appropriate instruments; most had a long and complex evolution. A thermometer was invented by Galileo in the early 1600s, but accurate liquid-inglass thermometers with calibrated scales were not available until the early 1700s (Fahrenheit), or the 1740s (Celsius). In 1643 Torricelli demonstrated that the weight of the atmosphere would support a 10 m column of water or a 760 m column of liquid mercury. Pascal used a barometer of Torricelli to show that pressure decreases with altitude, by taking one up the Puy de Dôme in France. This paved the way for Boyle (1660) to demonstrate the compressibility of air by propounding his law that volume is inversely proportional to pressure. It was not until 1802 that Charles showed that air volume is directly proportional to its temperature. By the end of the nineteenth century the four major constituents of the dry atmosphere (nitrogen 78.08 per cent, oxygen 20.98 per cent, argon 0.93 per cent and carbon dioxide 0.035 per cent) had been identified.

(Parte 2 de 9)

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