(livro) structural steel design and construction

(livro) structural steel design and construction

(Parte 1 de 9)

Building and Construction .Authority Singapore Structural Steel Society

A resource book for structural steel design and construction is jointly published by the Singapore Structural Steel Society and the Building And Construction Authority.

© Singapore Structural Steel Society and Building And Construction Authority, January 2001

All right reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publishers.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the information presented in this publication, neither the Society or the Authority nor their employees or agents can accept responsibility for any loss or damage incurred in connection with the use of the contents.

ISBN 981-04-3576-2

Locally, it has been a myth that structural steel is a viable solution only for very tall buildings. This is slowly changing as our architects, engineers, quantity surveyors and building owners become increasingly aware of the potential of structural steel application and gain familiarity with steel design, fabrication, construction and costing. In fact, it is encouraging to note that structural steel has been used for some medium rise buildings as well as landed housing projects in the recent past.

The popularity of structural steel in buildings will rise with increasing use of long span structures, column free spaces and light aesthetically pleasing roof structures allowing for abundance of skylight penetration. With the implementation of regulations requiring minimum Buildable Score for building design by the Building and Construction Authority (BCA) and the need for better quality control in building works, prefabricated structural steel components will be very useful in many building applications.

Over the years, the Singapore Structural Steel Society (S) has been very active in promoting the proper use of structural steel in buildings. Each year, the Society organises numerous talks, site visits, seminars, courses, workshops, annual lecture and international conferences to provide updates on latest technological development and relevant training in the application of structural steel.

The publication of this resource book is yet another major effort in this direction. The Society is very proud to have worked with the BCA on this important project to promote the use of structural steel as a highly buildable construction method. I would like to thank members of the Society, officers of the BCA and friends from the building industry for their contributions and support in making this publication a great success.

Lim Keng Kuok President, Singapore Structural Steel Society

The Building And Construction Authority (BCA) has been promoting the use of buildable designs as a strategic measure to make the construction sector more labour-efficient. This is necessary as the supply of unskilled foreign workers will be progressively tightened. In fact, the use of buildable designs will be stepped up from January 2001 when the government implements regulations under the Building Control Act to require building designs to have minimum Buildability Score.

Steel construction is one of the key means of increasing buildability. However, in Singapore, steel is still not commonly used in building projects. While there are other factors such as costs and flexibility, the lack of knowledge and unfamiliarity with steel design and construction, is one of the main reasons for the low usage of steel structures here.

BCA is therefore very pleased to work with the Singapore Structural Steel Society to produce this publication which will help to promote a better understanding of steel as one of the design alternatives that will help to raise buildability. The reference to some recent examples oflocal buildings that utilise steel components will help to dispel the notion that they are only economically viable for very tall buildings.

BCA looks forward to further cooperation with the Singapore Structural Steel Society to jointly promote the greater use of buildable designs in the construction industry.

Tan Tian Chong Director, Technology Development Division Building and Construction Authority

This resource book was made possible by a team of S members and BCA officers with inputs from various government agencies, developers, architects, engineers, contractors, steel fabricators and suppliers.

Author: Dr. J Y Richard Liew

Publication Committee From S

From BCA

Dr. J Y Richard Liew Mr Leonard Soh Mr John Moody Mr Ng Cheng Kiat

Mr Tan Tian Chong Mr Ang Lian Aik Mr Steven Cheong Ms Denise K wok Ms Kong Chew K wek

Department of Civil Engineering National University of Singapore

National University of Singapore Continental Steel Pte Ltd

Yongnam Engineering & Construction Pte Ltd TY Lin SEA Pte Ltd

Technology Development Division Technology Development Division Technology Development Division

Technology Development Division Technology Development Division

S and BCA would like to thank the following organisations for consent to use the information and photographs from their projects.

Capital Tower Private Limited for Capital Tower

City Developments Limited for Republic Plaza

Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore for 2 Finger Buildings at Terminal 1 Singapore Changi Airport

Cuppage Centre Private Limited for The Cuppage Centre

HKL (Esplanade) Private Limited for One Raffles Link

Land Transport Authority of Singapore for Expo MRT Station

OUB Centre Limited for OUB Centre

PSA Corporation Limited for Keppel District Park and Singapore Expo

Singapore Post Private Limited for Singapore Post Centre

Singapore Sports Council for Bishan Sports Stadium and Singapore Indoor Stadium

Singapore Turf Club for Kranji Racecourse

Suntec Development Private Limited for Singapore International Convention and Exhibition Centre

United Engineers Limited for UE Square

Continental Steel Pte Ltd, BHP Steel Building Products Singapore Pte Ltd, Yong Nam Engineering & Construction Pte Ltd & WY Steel Construction Pte Ltd for Section V -Cost of Steel Structures & Materials

'""'"',, SINGAPORE STRUCTURAL STEEL SociETY '""'"',.._..,

The Singapore Structural Steel Society, a non-profit organization, was inaugurated on 23 October 1984. Often referred to as the S, the Society aims to develop a resource of the best and latest information on the science, engineering and technology of structural steel, and strives to promote the proper and greater alternative use of structural steel for the benefit of the community and the region. This is made possible through the regular organization of seminars, evening lectures, short courses and conferences on various aspects of structural steelworks as well as publication of newsletters and technical journals.

Council Members (2000/200 1)

President Imm Past President

1st Vice President 2nd Vice President

Hon Secretary Hon Treasurer Council Members


Lim Keng Kuok Chiew Sing Ping

J Y Richard Liew Leonard Soh

Bernard Chung MS Islam Ang Kok Keng Lauw Su Wee John Moody

Ng Cheng Kiat Anthony Tan

Tan Tian Chong V Thevendran


PWD Consultants Pte Ltd Nanyang Technological University

National University of Singapore Continental Steel Pte Ltd

Corus South East Asia Pte Ltd Singapore Polytechnic National University of Singapore LSW Consultants Pte Ltd

Yongnam Engineering & Construction Pte Ltd

TY Lin SEA Pte Ltd

BHP Steel Building Products Singapore Pte Ltd

Building and Construction Authority National University of Singapore


The building and Construction Authority of Singapore (BCA) is a statutory board under the Ministry of National Development of Singapore. BCA's mission is to develop a technologically advanced construction industry, which serves Singapore's economic needs, and to ensure safe buildings and infrastructure. This jointed publication with S is part of the continuing efforts by BCA to promote higher quality and productivity through the adoption of buildable designs in the construction industry. The objective is in line with

BCA's aim to help transform the construction industry into a technologically advanced and high valued-added industry.

The most important and most frequently used construction materials are that of concrete and steel with applications in multistorey and industrial buildings, as well as bridges. These materials are compatible and complementary to each other; they have almost the same thermal expansion; they are ideal combination of strength, with concrete efficient in compression and steel in tension. Concrete also gives corrosion and thermal protection to steel at elevated temperature and additionally can restrain slender steel sections and members from local and lateral-torsional buckling.

The combined use of concrete cores, steel frames and composite floors to form an integrated system has become the standard construction method for multi-storey commercial buildings in Singapore. Composite beams, which consist of a reinforced concrete slab mechanically connected to the top flange of a girder, is considerably stronger and stiffer than the steel beam acting on its own. The increasing demand for open plan offices and business centres has encouraged the development of long-span structures, employing profiled steel decking supported on steel girders.

Projects that utilise composite design, to name a few, are the springleave tower, the Capital Tower. the Republic Plaza, the UE Square office block, the Cuppage Centre, the OUB Centre, the UOB Plaza, the Treasury Building, the Ocean Tower, the Concourse building, and the Savu Building. The world's tallest building, the 8-storey KLCC twin-tower, which is located at the Kuala Lumpur, has also utilised composite design for the flooring system. Composite construction has emerged into a well-established system that can be used for high-rise buildings, leisure parks and high-tech industrial buildings.

The Singapore's skyline has changed very visibly in the last 10 years. The constraints of limited land have forced us to build upwards. Our planners and architects have faced the challenge of continuing this type of development with the consideration of sustainable construction and buildability, and their impacts on the urban environment. As a result of this, there has been a dramatic resurgence in the use of steel as the structural frame material in multistorey construction in Singapore. Steel has always been associated with speed, especially so in the multistorey building construction. The local industry has now adopted the new approach ofbuildability, and has accepted the use of prefabricated and precast structural components for better control of product quality and to reduce site labour. New construction technologies are also emerging together with new products, which are suitable for used in the tropical and urban environment.

This publication looks at the fundamental concept of steelwork design and construction, and considers its effects on building costs. The move to larger spans to accommodate column free space and the intensive service requirements of the building tenant has brought in new design challenges. Several prestigious steel projects have been selected to provide a source of information, which is particularly valuable to engineers who are less familiar with the practice of modem steel technology. I hope that these projects will provide the inspirations for architects and engineers to expand their artistic expression and design spectacular with the use of steel members.

J Y Richard Liew Department of Civil Engineering

National University of Singapore

1 December 2000


1.1 Modem Techniques In Steel Frame Construction 1.2 Classification of Multi-storey Frames 1.3 Floor Systems 1.4 Design Concepts and Structural Schemes 1.5 Wind Effects on Buildings


2.1 Buildable Design Appraisal System 2.2 Legislation of Buildable Design 2.3 Buildability of Steel Structures 2.4 Buildability Score 2.5 Construction Quality Assessment System For Steel Structures


3.1 Steel Buildings Completed Between 1998-2000 3.2 Steel Buildings Completed Before 1997 3.3 Steel Buildings-Design Teams 3.4 Capital Tower 3.5 Finger Buildings at Changi Airport Terminal 1 3.6 Cuppage Centre (Starhub Centre) 3. 7 One Raffles Link 3.8 Singapore Post Centre 3.9 Republic Plaza 3.10 UE Square 3.1 OUB Centre


4.1 Steel Roofs Completed Between 1998-2000 4.2 Steel Roofs Completed Before 1997 4.3 Steel Roofs-Design Teams 4.4 Expo MRT Station 4.5 Grandstand of Singapore Racecourse 4.6 Singapore Expo 4.7 Bishan Sports Stadium 4.8 Singapore International Convention and Exhibition Centre 4.9 Keppel District Park 4.10 Singapore Indoor Stadium

SEcTION 5 -CosT oF STEEL STRUCTURES AND MATERIALS 5.1 Cost of Steel Structures & Materials




1.1.1 Buildability of Steelwork Construction One of the main considerations in planning a building project is to have the building ready and occupied as early as possible. In order to reduce the time over which the investment is tied up in construction and maximize the return of investment through the use of the building, the design needs to consider the buildability aspects of the construction.

Speed in construction is achieved through a number of factors, some of which are listed below:

Simple building design to avoid complicated site works Design for minimum delay in construction Maximize use of pre-fabricated and precast elements to avoid delays on site Reduce the number of operations on the critical path Complete all the designs before starting work on site

Complicated geometry and building layout design should be avoided where possible. This is especially critical in crowded city sites where access and storage of materials may be a problem. Repetition of work means that the work can be done in a much faster process. The more repetition in elements, the quicker the site team goes through the process of familiarization.

In steel framed building the positioning of services may need careful consideration at the design stage to allocate service zones. Hence, conflict of interests between various professions can be avoided.

Steel offers the best framing material for pre-fabrication. With the use of metal decks, the concept of Fast Track Construction is introduced. The metal decking can be placed easily and used as the slab reinforcement. Throughdeck stud welding for composite action reduces beams weights and/or depths. It also helps ensure that the floor slab can be used as a diaphragm to transfer lateral loads to the bracing frames or stiff cores. Lightweight fire protection can be applied at a later stage, taking it off the critical path.

1.1.2 Prefabrication and Ease of Construction Steel members and plates can be shop-fabricated using computer-controlled machinery, which have less chance of mistakes. On site the assembly is mainly carried out by a bolting procedure. Lateral load resisting system should be located at the lifts, stair towers etc to provide stability throughout, rather than a rigid unbraced frame where temporary bracing may be required during erection.

(Parte 1 de 9)