Project Engineering of Process Plants

Project Engineering of Process Plants

(Parte 4 de 10)

I. Inriirrs and Aids to Scnrrhing

.i. US. Gowrnmcnt Pablirntions* 1. Hi~.slihr~.~. H. S.. and hlelinnt. ?. H.. Suhjrct Guide to 1'nili.d Slo/~s Go,.- crnrrrrnt Puhlientior~s, .Imcl.icnn T.ihrarr .isuoci;~lion. Chicago. Ill. (19471.-Dr.

ser.ihrs gorrrnlnmt, publirationr and pir~c smmw [or n numhw of scle~r~d rq)iv-i.

2. Srlinreckehcir, I,. F., Gu~.r,-ti,ient Publicalions nrid ?'ir.i- 1st. The Brook- ing~ Institution, FTashington, D.C. (1936).-Anollicl. drscl.iptiw guide to g~vern- nirnt publications, although sonwwlint imldnted. 3. .Ilov/hi~ Cntnlog o/ thc 7.niicd Slolca Goswi-nmrnt Pzihlic,i/ions-lliijor indrx oi gmwnment publicniions. .A ypal.-pnd issue contains annual suhjert index. Lists prtietirally all pnl,liiations hth rongrcsaioniil :md rl~p.i~~t~nml:rl. tinil rtnrtinp In 1936 has included many proceeaed (mimcogloplird, rtc.) puhlirarioni iirmwd oi intrwst to the puhlic. Most large universities and puhlic lihl;iries serve as i,rrclt Scxirr,, oj Cortg,i,~.~-C;i~Ulr to Cong~wsion;tl litw~tmc.

7. C<,~<gs.c.~,<i<,rt<~l Dirvc/, ofrici:~l ~1:~f. r~~.~~~~~r~-il~iliti~~s ;and :wl~vitics ui r;dl dcl~;~clorvni, Inncan, and ngmv of ir,l.ld gorr~~nrnml. Govi~~.nmml o~.g:inizittion eli;cnps from 3-r:u to ycm. m111 th~ Di~wlo~.(- is ljrI~)hl in tlw I~TOPCI

1,uuting of Ipttwa of inquiry. 8. I'.S Gon mmrril .lluriiinl-Di~scril~~s oi.y:inizntion and dutirs oi ngmrim Hrlpfrtl in locating sen-iccs formrvly li:mllnl by :rlmlish~d ngrnrics. 9. O!!iriol Rryistr,. of titc I I (yearly)-1,iit.i pcwuns occupying

:~,lniinist~.:~tivt~. ,inilicial :and Icgiilntiv~ pwitiun; in tl~ FP~WII (:o~mmirnI

10. l>,y;,rI,,>?,,l;,l md B,,W .,,I l,,,liw-.\ ,I,,,,, Irr "i g,>,?rn,,,,~,lt <lc~l~:~~t!l~~nt~ :d I,nrc~nos lxl,li.l inliccr oi tlris uvn ~n~l,li~.:~tion-. 'lw~ inclwk tlw f~~loving

-~unmorirc: ,,. 1,i.d ,,/ lx' lj,,,.,<,,, ,,I Yi,,,,< i'~,l,Ii~"li,,i,~. 191I~-l!i;9.

b, lndcz I'~tldiwli~~~~s uf I/,<, C-.,S. lk),f. 01 Ay~~i~!tltvtW, I!!.GlW c, (',tld,~g 01 l..S ('<~m i!ttwo,8 P~tliliwliom, 1?!1~1--1'?~.?. I S I. i,J Co,,i,,iric<~ Piil~licolions (,'iifolog f1%?)-3lr,ntlrIy list of

2 Project Engineering of Process Plants

Cl~iriigo, Ill. 6. Ofici,ri Sterrms1,ip Aiiluw Guide, Trmipu~.tntion Cuiilea. Inc., Scw Ycrk.

U. Lahor

1. Bnrrwu oi I.ahor Statistics. U.S. Dept, of L:nhol., IV;rshinglan. D.C. a. Monthly cn~ploymcnt report hy etalrs.

b. Cost of Living Indices. e. Handbook 01 Labor Stotis!ics. Puhlisl~ed irregularly since 1926-Wages.

cast of living, fte. d. Jfnntidy Labor Ret,i~zu-Wagc surreys. statistical dnta, hihliug~.apIr? oi

Plant Location 23

3. The Conference Board Management Record, Sational Industrial Canierenrp

Board. Sev York, S.Y. (monthly).-Discusses labor trends and presents statistics. 4. Labor Union Publications. o. Economic Oittlook-CIO, Dept. oi Education and Research, Kashington.

6. 1-ho'. TVtio Lichor, 1)vrlen P~.css, Serv York, X.Y. i. Prrntic~-Hnll T.;ihor Puhlic;rtions. Pwntive-Hall. S~T Ywk, S.Y. o. L,ihi,, Rcp<irl--Kr&ly rqmrt in lahrx relntianr.

h. Lnhnr Gitirie-Intr~.p~.~ts existing Inrrs. r. L,iho,. S~vri'icc-llirkly supi)lw~cnts. ron~jilc[c tpxti or digcsts of nil nsa labor laws. 8. 1hi1.r:~ of Sation:il AHnirs. IVaihiiigton. Dc., and the Comm~we C1r;mng

Huoir. Cliiwgo. Ill.-Poblisii ronwleralllc 1:hur mformwtion. Loml union irprr;enti~ti\w :and l8ho1. 1:ryycri. 10. Stntt ~~nt~lo?mrnt oflicrs-heal cnn s1111ply infol.m:ition on :I.P:L ecrll>lo> uwni i.i,nililion.s. 1. Iitdi~ 1, I,,rbiri Arlicica. Rnnd School 01 Sar.i:il Scicnrr, Sew Yo&, XI-.

1. Tli~l-wu of Census. Digrsts of sI:~te law rrlulinc: to t:<xrs ((:or. Div.). h. City fin:ini.w :md rmpluyrnent (Go\-. Dir.).

r.. Census of pqulntion.

2. h!iili.~lirs o/ lricom', RIIIP>LLI of Intetnal R~vmur, ITS. T~.~asnt.y Dek~t.. IVasliingtrm, 1j.C.

3. .Iliit~icipril I, 11tI City ling .hw,.i;ttion. ('liii.;~go. Ill-I.irts offici:~ls and fom~ oi my gui-ernment.

4. .1~8u~u~?vze?t! A~~~~Loc, Satin~xtl Indwtrul Conicv~n~~ Bmrd, SW Ywk,

S.Y-Givrs conmnrra prire indicrs in GO cities. '5, Ai<to,ttobic FCC/* ri. Figurn, .Aolomohilr hlmnif;ir.t~~srri' .i;wi:~tion. Dr- troit. \.livh.-(;iyrj rcgistlxtion dnta.

*6. Anwrican Twtisit .Assw., SPX Yd, K.Y.-ITntc im iniww>tim on lural trnniporlntiun svstrms.

*i. h~nrriuan T:ixicat, .Association, Clrirago. Ill.-\l~.itc iw d;ili> on t;ixi srt~tictlc-.

*X .in~wiwn T~'lrpImnc & Telegraph Co.. Se~y Ymk. S.T.-Conrart iol. itatis- tir:il ~IR on pllones. "9. ITS. Post Oflicc Thpt., ITaahington. D(:-Contart iol. ~wwipts for inrli7-~hal {post utliws.

10. Drj,al.trnrnt of Commerce--Statistiral data on bucmra* onrvatmns ni all kinds.

1. Ranker's 1)iwi.turier. Rand-hlrSdIy. Chicago, Ill. h. R. I,. Polk Cunipany, K:i~l~vill~. Tmn.

* Valunhl~ in vulnp:t~ing comulrurili~~,.

24 Project Engineering of Process Plonts Plant Location 25

14. Stalisiiwl Scwims. Dun & Rsarlrt~~rct b. 5t:lndard & Pools

15. Fcdrwl RPSCIT-r lhnk. 16. Prderol Km~wc .%l!r.iin Ronrd oi Go\e~.nor.; Frdrml Re-srnr Syitern.

I~urliingron. I1.C. (yr~.iudic;tl)-Gi~c,s dqrnrfmrnt iiurr ielrr ad rons~in7rr wedit 'lillil. 17. 1,or:tl Ix~k~.

I. CI i VI~J-. county. It Iltl 1)rirlol~1i1rmt l~o:trds: stat? t~niwr~ities.

19. Bimnio! Suj.w!g 01 ,?~l~~~~~!iu~z, F&n~l S~citciLy .lgmv>-. Kasl~iugton, D.<-.-

23. Statc and city 1ir;~Illr di.partmm-.. 24. Sntion;tl Oilirr of Vital Stnrictiir. T.S. T)~I. of I'ohli,, Hi.:dlh Knsliington. 1)C.-Birth? and deaths in ritii,~. 25, Olficil IIolcl Rcrlhuok & Diricli~i,. 11wxic;ln Hutrl .lioriatian 1)i.wlol.y

Tlw above listing is I1y no ulcons coluplete. H?nv)- cm~;l~asis Iirr- been p1:icetl on tire nontei~lrni(~a1 dntn sources since it is assumetl that onc trained in engineering will 11e\.e a n-orking knorvlecige of the sourccs of scientific and technical literature. The factual infonnatii~n nx-nilablc flrim industrial divisions of ~I~II- bcrs of commerce, utilit:- con~panie.s: mid milrorids deserve special em- ~il~nsis I~erc. Altl~ough, us ;ill.enrly ~uenriunril. tlie iutevpret:~tion by tlresc organizations tvill l~rol~:ibly he filled tvitli tile same enthusiasm fur alr area as that held by any a~ea booster, the faotunl data is usually reliable.

It is ;irrangcd in a \-cry udul nianner and represents tire most rapid meiins oi obtnining n co~npil;rtion of ilat:~, p:irticularly f~ir :i prcliniinan. surmy. Certainly for ilct:iile~l surveys nil<litional facts n-liiv11 r~y 11nr.e t~cen ~nnitted ~uust be, obtained :~nd :ill other data cllt'cked

As an example of the type of ~naterial obtainable from a cl~arnber of commerce: it is interesting to take a hricf look st the brucliurc iwxd by idle Charnbcr of Conunerce of Houst(in," 21 rapidly grutving industrial ;rre:k, p~rticul;irly in tl~c 11row.s iu~lr~sirit.i. T<riefly> tl\c ini11r111~i1 :I?-

;.cnrl;lcrl incluilcs thc f~1,:nr-ing: 1 I~kctli~~i~ ilt(.o~~ir .-riri.ur~~r~li~i~ :iw:~ (.oIIII~~I'-.

2. Tr:~~~s~x~rt:rtiu~~-~ic~r.~~ijitir~ri [if :ill tylm :init I:IIW.

3. Raw ~Iaterir~ls-i~ualitative inforn~:~tion. 4. Fuel, IY:itcr: and Pmv\.t*r-rntes and adrlrcss~s i)i' r~tility ~iffirials.

5, Labor-typical tvage rates, consnmer price index. 6. Taxes-rates, Addresses i~f city awl state officials to cor1t:ict for

~rdditionnl inforn~ation-ICs1)lanation of tax drurtnrc. 7. \Yeather-charts.

8. Industries in Area-oil and gas, clren~icals, and n1ct;lls-l)escril~tioli oi existing facilities. l~rodurtion and list uf all plants on Gulf C'~I:I~ r-it11

Ilamcs of genernl managers, lists of prodi~ct.~, mil qu:rntities nv:rilnhl(,. 3 lliscellnneous Statistics over Pt:riod of Ycars- n. Population. b. Retail Sales.

c. New Construction.

d. Bank Accoonti. e. Eniplopimt.

f. Post Office Receipts.

g. Chan~ber of Conr~nc~w Statiitieal Sinn~nary (iw~ed montl~lyi- includes .stati.~tirs on Port oi Houston tonn:lges. dqwtn~cnt store, sales, telephones in service, and t~r-enty-twc oti~cr 1)uints \I-hick indicate city vitality.

When it is rcalized that all this lielpful iniormation is available from one orgnnization at no coat. the value of primte and pnl~lic industrial drvelopmant ilcprirtnm~ts bccon~es m~rc npparcnt.

Preliminary Dato for Construction Projects 27 CHAPTER 3

After a rlte has been selected for the construction of a process plant, a large amount of infurmation must be acculnulated hefore design work ran begin. Engineers, purchasing agents, and construction supcrrisors must hare detailed information about the site and surrounding area. Several experienced men \vitl~ backgrounds in both engineering and con- struction management ran obtain the nccdcd preliininary d:tta on a visit to the construction site. The information they gather includes data on engineering for use in design, procurerncnt pr:tctices in the area, and informati~~n necessary for planning construction. Tllesc preliminary data plus psocess requirements set tire hasis for design an11 constrnrt,ion of the plant.

Preliminary data outlined below are typical of tllat gatllcred hy the engineer on his survey visit to the job site.

Engineering Data

Essential data necessary for the engineering of a ~wocess ~Iallt 1vIlicll should be obtained by the survey include:

Weather Data

Fur domestic projects (U.S.) information on wcatlrer iuay he ohtsineil from government agencies such as the U.S. N'eatllcr Bureau, G.S. Depart- ulrnt of Agriculture. and the US. (:east and Geodetic Snrey. Tlic hn~r- icau Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers hare also cm~piled considerable n-eatlicr data, vhich may be useful in preliminary n-ork.

'scful in initial plant armngcu~ent. .is an illustration assume that the plant is to be located in an area where the xind is predominantly fr,:,m the Southeast. It wmld be nndesirablc to locate a process ~vl~irll fre- quently discharges noxious funlcs on the Southeast side of the plant where they ~ould he constantly blown through the plant. Again, asaurnc that a process discharges particularly volatile and flannnable vapors that are Ileavier than air. It xould be unwise to locate an open fired heater in the path that the fun~cs w~uld ordinarily foll~~w. General xind direction rnust bc considered in locating any process which is exiraor~linarily ha- xrdous or subject to fires. The efcct of wind direction m storage areas for flalnn~al~le products should also be rtudied.

Cscd in setting proper design conditions ipounds per square foot) for tvind loads on exposed rtructurcs, equipment. or hildings. Certain U. S.

Gulf Coast areas, for instance, use 40 pounds per square foot because of ~x~ssil~ility of hurricanes. The final value has considerable influence on structural and foundation design.

TJsed in process design, in the selection of insulation, in determining plant-building typcs fl~r ilrocess equlpnlcnt prote~tion, in building design for personnel ~,un~fort, ilnd in selecting inaintenancc procedures. The design of the cooling vxter system and selection of equipnent are also influenced by atnlwpl~eric tcn~pcrature rengrs. Tctnpcrature ranges should he studied over a tvo-year period: or longer, to provide the best estimates of arerage values.

REI.ATIVE HUMI~ITT (range by day, month, and seasonal :iveragei

Required for design of cnoling towers, air driers for process air, and for determining personnel cmifort requirements for buildings.

RAISFALL (IKI~X~~~UIII, yearly, and seasonal avelagcJ

Required for plant drainage design, building design, and possibly in process deslgn.


Required for structure design, maintenance procedures, and buildlng design.

2 8 Project Engineering of Process Plants

Plant Terrain

1. Soils I~I-t l,c cq>li~rcd for fonndation or load-canying character- is ti^,?.

1. Chnror~r mnps sl~mving ground e1cv:itions ~\-llicIl :ire useful in plan- ning 111nnt ~irni~:~gc and plant roiid\\-ay ayitenls sl~onld be prepared. c. (I<~ncrnl slopr or I~crularitiei of the site, are also nccess:uy in pstimat-

Ing l,i.clir~~innrp ar:~diug \\-hiclr in turn inriicales the type of construction gr:lcling c(l11ipment.

a. Promas n.atrr (n.atcr used in the 1n'occss).

I,. I'nms cooling rvatcr. c. Sirnit:~ry water (tl~ia illlht he 11otiih1~ \\RI~c~.

d. Gtility water (n-ntcr 11wd for general clr;uiing and n~iseclluneous scrvirw I.

e, S~VXIII grnw:~tio~l I:L~XYI~I \\-:it~r for lx~iler.~) f. Fire protect,ion xuter.

g. \Vnter for constvnetii~n uji Iqu:intitic:: of conbtru~.tion n-ntrr dcpcIId on type of l~rojrot, nu11111cr of construotii~n c~i~ploy(,cs, :mil the lcligtll 01 the cor~structiou period).

JTater for process cooling, sanitary nse, and steam generation must be che~iiically pure or trcatcd to thc extr.nt rrquircd for the pror.ct:s. Thc source of rater supply may be fro111 *trennr he& or other natural Water provided turbidity and scdiulcntation is not excessive. Brackizl~ or ~31t \\-ater is oftt.n IIS~,~ for vmiling, lx~t c:rrefnl selection of the 1u:ltc- rials uf construction is necessary in order to 11revent corrosion and de~m?its.

Preliminary Doto for Construction Projects 29

Elec:ric Power and Fuel Services

IYl~cn rlt,ctric pinver is to 11e p~rclln~crl, the 111c;ltion of incoming pwwr f(~~li,r-. :tml tlir plant sul~st:ltirn~ nrnst 11e rlctcrnrirrmi. Priuii~ry voltages IIIU~ l~e deterniined early, in orllcr ti1 start cnginrcring :ind procurc~nmt

11i thr I:I~~ 1)lant tranrf~rn~cr and switcl~gcar. Tlic preliminary sllrvcy sI~ol~l,l dctcnuinc the (1ire1,tion from ~vhirll the lilies ~vill conic; ~vhether

~i~ivcr Sro~n tila llropcrty hit to tlic substt~tion is to bc ove~11e:id i~n~lcrground. \vlretlirr a zinglc fccder systrm \~-ill he pr,>vi(iril, or \\-l~etllcr tw or liiore sources i11.c to he conncctrd. h singlr sopply fccder system is 1-1 I It ill be I-ill. In rwtail~ arcas snl~jtwt to ievcrc :~tinr,>plioric clwtril,ul disturlxinccs. Ilowevcr. pn.i,r fnilr~ro fr<qui.r~cy is

:I sr~ri~~w pr~il>lwil. 'IYic ~IOTT-~~ s~~pplicr may he :t11Ic to reduce frqnen~y r~r ~~rol~d~ility of E:lilure by ridding one or nlorc n(lditiuni11 frciicrs pro- vi~liny po~~-\-r iri~~n n diffwnt dirction. Pa>t I~istrlry of po~r f;iiI~rez !l!:r)- 1. !I?tcr~nini'd 1'1.~1 tlw s~~pl~lirr's ~~twr~ls or fro1 1t1w li1(.:1 IIWS.

'I'hr .qilllirr IIIU~ :?Is0 Iw givrm, 11s cwly :IS l~r~ssil~le, th ,late IVII~IL tl~c 1:1nt xill start opcr;~tion I~ \vl~en lmwr will be required. Ii tclu- porary power is to 11c provi~leil for construction uses. il~c necessary nr- rmgemrnts for inrtnllation ~l~oulrl be made early. Poor electric utility -.mice or n rrrord of high frequency of porwr failures ninst be considered n.l~en parts of the process becon~e haanrdous under power inilurc condi- tions. In certain processes many prime movers must be provided ~vitl~ spare steam rlrivrrr for safety reasons. In a major installation tl~c ilrq~licatim of drivers inay he rostly.

Small paclc:~gr-typc stennl .rcenerntors are nsnally nmrr i'ronnn~ir~l th:~n

30 Project Engineering of Process Plants

The selection of the ty11c of fuel drpm~ls on heating value and scllinp price aud i~ elusely rrlatc,,I to tile rconomics of purcliaml 11o~r-1.r. Smie of tlte sources are: (1 I Kntural gns; (2) fuel oils and liquefier1 petrolcum gas; (3) cod 11s (1t11er si liil fuels; (41 plant n-astes. Snturirl gas is often user1 as a raw material in certain proceiscs. \T-hcn tllc process requires naturai gas as a raw material, gas is also used as [llallt fuel. Smie oi the plant uses oi gas arc as fucl for priule mol-ers such as large internal cmnbuation engine-driven compressors or gas turbinrs.

(Parte 4 de 10)