Visualizing Geology, 3rd Edition- Barbara W Murck

Visualizing Geology, 3rd Edition- Barbara W Murck

(Parte 1 de 7)

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Visualizing geology THIRD EDITION

Visualizing geology THIRD EDITION

VICE PRESIDENT AND EXECUTIVE PUBLISHER Jay O’Callaghan EXECUTIVE EDITOR Ryan Flahive DIRECTOR OF DEVELOPMENT Barbara Heaney MANAGER, PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT Nancy Perry PRODUCT DESIGNER Beth Tripmacher EDITORIAL OPERATIONS MANAGER Lynn Cohen EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS Darnell Sessoms, Brittany Cheetham DIRECTOR, MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS Jeffrey Rucker SENIOR MARKETING MANAGER Margaret Barrett SENIOR CONTENT MANAGER Micheline Frederick SENIOR PRODUCTION EDITOR William Murray CREATIVE DIRECTOR Harry Nolan COVER DESIGN Harry Nolan INTERIOR DESIGN Jim O’Shea PHOTO RESEARCHER Ellinor Wagner

COVER CREDITS Main cover photo: Chris Hill/NGS/© Corbis Bottom inset photos (left to right): Greg Vaughn/Alamy; Doug Millar/Photo Researchers, Inc.; Jerry Dorill/ Getty Images, Inc.; Woods Wheatcroft/Getty Images, Inc.; Michael S. Yamashita/NG Image Collection Back cover inset photo: Michael S. Yamashita/NG Image Collection

This book was set in New Baskerville by Preparé and printed and bound by Quad/Graphics. The cover was printed by Quad/Graphics.

Evaluation copies are provided to qualified academics and professionals for review purposes only, for use in their courses during the next academic year. These copies are licensed and may not be sold or transferred to a third party. Upon completion of the review period, please return the evaluation copy to Wiley. Return instructions and a free of charge return shipping label are available at w.wiley.com/go/returnlabel. If you have chosen to adopt this textbook for use in your course, please accept this book as your complimentary desk copy. Outside of the United States, please contact your local representative.

ISBN 13: 978-1-118-12986-9 BRV ISBN: 978-1-118-25281-9

Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Preface

Wiley Visualizing is based on decades of research on the use of visuals in learning (Mayer, 2005).1 The visuals teach key concepts and are pedagogically designed to explain, present, and organize new information. The figures are tightly integrated with accompanying text; the visuals are conceived with the text in ways that clarify and reinforce major concepts while allowing students to understand the details. This commitment to distinctive and consistent visual pedagogy sets Wiley Visualizing apart from other textbooks.

The texts offer an array of remarkable photographs, maps, media, and film from photo collections around the world, including those of National Geographic. Wiley Visualizing’s images are not decorative; such images can be distracting to students. Instead, they are purposeful and the primary driver of the content. These authentic materials immerse the student in real-life issues and experiences and support thinking, comprehension, and application.

Together these elements deliver a level of rigor in ways that maximize student learning and involvement. Wiley Visualizing has been proven to increase student learning through its unique combination of text, photographs, and illustrations, with online video, animations, simulations, and assessments.

1. Visual Pedagogy. Using the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, which is backed up by hundreds of empirical research studies, Wiley’s authors create visualizations for their texts that specifically support students’ thinking and learning—for example, the selection of relevant materials, the organization of the new information, or the integration of the new knowledge with prior knowledge.

2. Authentic Situations and Problems. Visualizing Geology 3e benefits from National Geographic’s more than centurylong recording of the world and offers an array of remarkable photographs, maps, media, and film. These authentic materials immerse the student in real-life issues in geology, thereby enhancing motivation, learning, and retention (Donovan & Bransford, 2005).2

3. Designed with Interactive Multimedia. Visualizing Geology 3e is tightly integrated with WileyPLUS, our online learning environment that provides interactive multimedia activities in which learners can actively engage with the materials. The combination of textbook and WileyPLUS provides learners with multiple entry points to the content, giving them greater opportunity to explore concepts and assess their understanding as they progress through the course. WileyPLUS is a key component of the Wiley Visualizing learning and problem-solving experience, setting it apart from other textbooks whose online component is mere drill-and-practice.

1 Mayer, R.E. (Ed.) (2005). The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. Cambridge University Press. 2 Donovan, M.S., & Bransford, J. (Eds.) (2005). How Students Learn: Science in the Classroom. The National Academy Press. Available online at http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11102&page=1

Wiley Visualizing and the WileyPLUS Learning Environment are designed as a natural extension of how we learn

To understand why the Visualizing approach is effective, it is first helpful to understand how we learn.

1. Our brain processes information using two main channels: visual and verbal. Our working memory holds information that our minds process as we learn. This “mental workbench” helps us with decisions, problem-solving, and making sense of words and pictures by building verbal and visual models of the information.

2. When the verbal and visual models of corresponding information are integrated in working memory, we form more comprehensive and lasting mental models.

3. When we link these integrated mental models to our prior knowledge, stored in our long-term memory, we build even stronger mental models. When an integrated (visual plus verbal) mental model is formed and stored in long-term memory, real learning begins.

The effort our brains put forth to make sense of instructional information is called cognitive load. There are two kinds of cognitive load: productive cognitive load, such as when we’re engaged in learning or exert positive effort to create mental models; and unproductive cognitive load, which occurs when the brain is trying to make sense of needlessly complex content or when information is not presented well. The learning process can be impaired when the information to be processed exceeds the capacity of working memory. Well-designed visuals and text with effective pedagogical guidance can reduce the unproductive cognitive load in our working memory.

How Is Wiley Visualizing Different?

The visuals and text in Visualizing Geology 3e are specially integrated to present complex processes in clear steps and with clear representations, organize related pieces of information, and integrate related information. This approach, along with the use of interactive multimedia, minimizes un productive cognitive load and helps students engage with the content. When students are engaged, they’re reading and learning, which can lead to greater know ledge and academic success.

Research shows that well-designed visuals, integrated with comprehensive text, can improve the efficiency with which a learner processes information. In this regard, SEG Research, an independent research firm, conducted a national, multisite study evaluating the effectiveness of Wiley Visualizing. Its findings indicate that students using Wiley Visualizing products (both print and multimedia) were more engaged in the course, exhibited greater retention throughout the course, and made significantly greater gains in content area knowledge and skills, as compared to students in similar classes that did not use Wiley Visualizing.3

The use of WileyPLUS can also increase learning. According to a white paper titled “Leveraging Blended Learning for More Effective Course Management and Enhanced Student Outcomes” by Peggy Wyllie of Evince Market Research & Communications, studies show that effective use of online resources can increase learning outcomes. Pairing supportive online resources with face-to-face instruction can help students to learn and reflect on material, and deploying multimodal learning methods can help students to engage with the material and retain their acquired knowledge.

3 SEG Research (2009). Improving Student-Learning with Graphically Enhanced Textbooks: A Study of the Effectiveness of the Wiley Visualizing Series.

Wiley Visualizing is designed for engaging and effective learning

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Using the scientific method (Figure 1.4) This matrix visually organizes abstract information to reduce cognitive load.

Seafloor spreading (Figure 4.7) Through a logical progression of graphics, this illustration directs learners’ attention to the underlying concept. Textual and visual elements are physically integrated. This eliminates split attention—when too many sources of information divide attention.

Earth and lunar “soil”—Not the same! (Figure 7.1) Photos are paired so that students can compare and contrast them, thereby grasping the underlying concept. Adjacent caption eliminates split attention.

Bed load and suspended load (Figure 7.14) From abstraction to reality: Linking the graph to a photo illustrates how data on the graph relates to an actual river.

Student engagement is more than just exciting videos or interesting animations— engagement means keeping students motivated to keep going. It is easy to get bored or lose focus when presented with large amounts of information, and it is easy to lose motivation when the relevance of the information is unclear. The design of WileyPLUS is based on cognitive science, instructional design, and extensive research into user experience. It transforms learning into an interactive, engaging, and outcomes-oriented experience for students.

How Are the Wiley Visualizing Chapters Organized?

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The Ocean and the Atmosphere

Chapter Introductions illustrate key concepts in the chapter with intriguing stories and striking photographs.

Chapter Outlines anticipate the content.

The Chapter Planner gives students a path through the learning aids in the chapter. Throughout the chapter, the Planner icon prompts students to use the learning aids and to set priorities as they study.

Each Wiley Visualizing chapter engages students from the start

Chapter opening text and visuals introduce the subject and connect the student with the material that follows.

Experience the chapter through a WileyPLUS course.

Wiley Visualizing guides students through the chapter

The content of Wiley Visualizing gives students a variety of approaches—visuals, words, interactions, video, and assessments—that work together to provide a guided path through the content.

Geology InSight features are multipart visual sections that focus on a key concept or topic in the chapter, exploring it in detail or in broader context using a combination of photos, diagrams, maps, and data.

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Learning Objectives at the start of each section indicate in behavioral terms the concepts that students are expected to master while reading the section.

Process Diagrams provide in-depth coverage of processes correlated with clear, step-by-step narrative, enabling students to grasp important topics with less effort.

Geology InSight Sorting and roundness of clasts ✓✓

Metamorphic Processes learning objectives

1. identify two types of physical changes that occur in rock during metamorphism.

2. Describe contact, burial, and regional metamorphism.

3. identify the tectonic settings where the different types of metamorphism are likely to occur.

4. Define metasomatism and explain how it differs from metamorphism.

T types of Metamorphism

Mechanical deformation • Figure 10.1

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Case Studies are in-depth examinations of fascinating and important issues in geology.

Bad and Good Soil Management

Case Study✓✓

Global Locator

What a Geologist Sees highlights a concept or phenomenon that would stand out to a geologist. Photos and figures are used to improve students’ understanding of the usefulness of a geology perspective and to develop their observational skills.

Where Geologists Click showcases a Web site that professionals use and encourages students to try out its tools.

The Amazing Places sections take the student to a unique place that provides a vivid illustration of a concept in the chapter. Students could easily visit most of the Amazing Places someday and so continue their geologic education.

Lechuguilla Cave

Global Locator ✓✓AmAzinG PlACEs

Shelves Most of the world’s sedimentary rocks originate as strata on continental shelves. As fresh water flows out to sea through an estuary or a river mouth, it continues seaward across the continental shelf. It will deposit most of its sand-sized sediment, whether river derived or formed by erosion of the shore, within about 5 km of the land. However, some sand can be found 100 km or more offshore. Otherwise, continental shelf sediment tends to consist of silty or sandy mud that contains marine fossils.

On the continental shelf of eastern North America, up to a 14-km thickness of fine sediment has accumulated over the past 150 million years. Shelves, in effect, catch weathered continental crust in such a way that it is continually recycled by the processes of plate tectonics and the rock cycle. Because of the abundance of marine life in shallow shelf waters, continental shelf sediment generally contains a high percentage of organic matter.

Carbonate platforms and reefs Where the climate and surface temperature are warm enough to nurture abundant carbonate-secreting organisms, biogenic sediment composed of calcium carbonate may accumulate on continental shelves or broad, flat carbonate platforms that rise from the seafloor (Figure 8.7c). A reef is a waveresistant structure built from the skeletons of marine invertebrates. Reefs are generally restricted to warm, sunlit waters of normal marine salinity.

Marine evaporite basins In coastal areas with a sufficiently warm and dry climate, ocean water may evaporate fast enough to leave behind the salts that were dissolved in it, as a marine evaporite deposit. These can be distinguished from lake-derived evaporites because they have a different mineral composition. Marine evaporite deposits are surprisingly common (reflecting the many times that shallow seas have flooded large areas of continents in the past) and underlie as much as 30% of the land area of North America.

Turbidites Thick sediment deposits are found at the foot of the continental slope, at depths as great as 5 km beneath the surface of the ocean. The origin of these deposits was difficult to explain until marine geologists discovered that turbidity currents—essentially, underwater landslides that originate on the continental shelf—deposit them. These currents of sediment, sometimes started by the shaking from an earthquake, rush swiftly down the continental slope at velocities of up to 90 km/h. When a turbidity current reaches the ocean floor, it slows down and deposits a graded layer of sediment called a turbidite. (To view a turbidity current in a laboratory experiment, see Where Geologists Click.) At any site on the continental rise, a major turbidity current is a rare event that happens perhaps once every few thousand years. Nevertheless, over millions of years, turbidites can slowly accumulate and form thick deposits consisting of many layers (Figure 8.7d).

(Parte 1 de 7)

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